Ngữ pháp, bài tập Câu bị động lớp 8 có đáp án

Ngữ pháp, bài tập Câu bị động lớp 8 có đáp án

Tải xuống

Tài liệu Ngữ pháp, bài tập Câu bị động lớp 8 có đáp án trình bày khái quát lại ngữ pháp, cấu trúc, cách dùng cũng như bài tập có đáp án chi tiết nhằm mục đích giúp học sinh ôn luyện ngữ pháp và đạt kết quả cao trong các bài thi môn Tiếng Anh lớp 8.

PASSIVE VOICE

(CÂU BỊ ĐỘNG)

A. LÝ THUYẾT

I. ĐỊNH NGHĨA

- Active voice: là cách đặt câu trong đó S giữ vai trò chủ động/ chủ thể( essential part) hay S là người hay vật thực hiện hành động :

Eg : The workers built this house/ She bought a book. 

- Passive voice: là cách đặt câu trong đó S đứng vai trò bị động và O giữ vai trò chủ động hay S nhận hành động do một chủ thể khác thực hiện.

Eg: This house was built by the workers. / A book was bought by her. 

- Bị động là hình thức nhấn mạnh vào chủ thể chịu tác động của hành động và chính hành động đó:

Bao gồm: + Chủ thể tạo tác động của hành động

                 + Hành động ( Không quan tâm tới chủ thể thực hiện hành động )

I. Form:

      Active:      S + V + O + ……. 

      Passive:    S + be + V3/ed + (by O) + ……

Ex: Active:   She arranges the books on the shelves every weekend.

                       S        V             O

     Passive: The books are arranged on the shelves (by her) every weekend.

                         S          be    V3/ed                              by O

II. CÁCH ĐỔI  ACTIVE VOICE SANG PASSIVE VOICE:

Ex:   Active sentence:     Peter took this book yesterday

         Passive sentence:    This book was taken by  Peter yesterday

Trong câu chủ động:

- Peter → Subj ;  took → động từ chính (Past simple)    

 - this book → Obj;  yesterday → trạng từ chỉ thời gian

Trong câu bi động:

- Obj ( this book) → Subj ;  Subj ( Peter) →by Obj

- took (động từ chính) → taken (V/ VoED - Past participle)

          - thêm was  vì động từ chính (took)  đang chia thì Past simple    

A. Tổng quát: 

 

A. Tổng quát:       active sentence:        Subject    +     V  +        Obj


Passive sentence:      Subject  + BE      +   V/ VED (động từ chính) +    by     Obj

1- Chuyển: Obj ---> Subj;  Subj  ----> by Obj (Có thể bỏ nếu  by Obj  không cần thiết)

2-Thêm BE và chia thì tương ứng với thì câu chủ động. 

Nghĩa là: Động từ chính của câu chủ động ở thì nào thì “ To Be” phải chia ở thì đó). Như vậy: trong câu bị động  To Be có vai trò chia thì, Động từ chính có chức năng như một tính từ mang nghĩa bị động (không chia thì)

3- Chuyển động từ chính sang  --->   V3 hoặc Vo ED.   

Một số công thức bị động cụ thể của các thì:

1. Present simple tense:  S + is/ am/ are+ PII + by O

Eg: I drink coffee everyday -> coffee is drunk everyday.

2. Present continuous tense:  S + is/ am/ are+ being+  PII + by O

Eg: Lan is listening to music at the moment -> Music is being listened to by Lan at the moment.

3. Present perfect tense:  S + have/ has+ been + PII + by O

Eg: We have hired this car since yesterday -> This car has been hired since yesterday.

4. Past simple tense: S + was/ were + PII + O

Eg: They stole a lot of money in that bank two years ago. -> A lot of money were stolen in that bank two years ago.

5. Past continuous tense: S + was/ were + being+  PII + O

Eg: Ann was writing a letter yesterday morning. -> A letter was written by Ann yesterday morning.

6. Past perfect tense: S + had + been + PII + O

Eg: I had had dinner before I did my home work yesterday. -> Dinner had been had before my homework was done yesterday.

7. Simple future tense:  S + will/ shall+ be +PII +O

Eg: My father will paint our house white tomorrow. -> Our house will be painted white by my father tomorrow.

8. Near future tense:  S + is/ are/ am+ going to+ be +PII +O

Eg: Ann is going to work this tree. -> This tree is going to be worked by Ann.

9. Future perfect tense:  S + will/ shall+ have been +PII +O

Eg: They will have sold their car by next Christmas. -> Their car will have been sold by them next Christmas. 

10. Infinitive:  S+ (to) + be+ PII + O 

Eg: I have to finish my homework now. -> My homework has to be finished now.

11. Gerund : being + PII+ O

Eg: I remember my mother taking me to the cinema when I was I child. -> I remember being taken to the cinema by my mother when I was a child.

12. Modal V:  modal V + Be + PII + O

Eg: You should type this term paper. -> This term paper should be type.

13. Modal V+ perfect:  modal V + have Been + PII + O

Eg: Somebody should have called the president this morning. -> The president should have been called this morning. 

* Notes:

- Ta dùng V nguyên thể trong bị động : Be+PII để chỉ 1 ý định hay sự bắt buộc hay sự không thể đc.

Eg: This exercise is to be done 

       This matter is to be discussed soon.

  • Sau những V: to have, to order, to get, to cause hay 1 V chỉ về giác quan hoặc cảm tính ta dùng PII bao hàm nghĩa như bị động:

Eg:  We had your photo taken.

 We heard the song sung

 We got tired after having walked for long.

B. Cụ thể như sau:

1. Xác định  Subj, Obj, Verb của câu chủ động (trong động từ phải xác định cho được thì và động từ chính của câu chủ động)

2. Chuyển: Obj ---> Subj;  Subj  ----> by Obj (Có thể bỏ by him/them/me/you/people/ someone : nếu không cần thiết).

   - Nếu Subj của câu chủ động là danh từ chỉ vật liệu, dụng cụ ---> câu bị động thay by bằng with + Obj.

Ex:   Moss is covering this wall.  ---> This wall is being covered with moss.

   - Nếu Subj của câu chủ động là:  nothing, no one, nobody  ---> câu bị động bỏ by  Obj  và ở thể phủ định.

      Ex:   No one helps me  ---> I am not helped.

3. Chuyển động từ chính sang  --->   V3 hoặc Vo ED.         

       (Động từ chính có chức năng như một tính từ mang nghĩa bị động-không chia thì)

4. Thêm BE và chia tương ứng với thì của câu chủ động (Động từ chính của câu chủ động ở thì nào thì To be phải chia ở thì đó)

5. Giữ lại động từ khiếm khuyết (Modal verbtrong câu bị động nếu có.

Will/ would, shall/ should, can/ could, may/might must, have to, be going to, used to, ...

      Active:    S+ will/would, shall/ should...+ Vo + object 

→Passive:  S + will/would, shall/should... + be + V3 / Vo ED  (+ by object).

Ex: Police will destroy these drugs.  →  These drugs will be destroyed by police.

6. Đặt trạng từ chỉ thể cách (adj + ly) trước Past Participle (V3 / Vo ED) nếu có. 

Ex:  People use English widely → English is widely used  

7. Giữ nguyên giới từ sau Past Participle (V3 / Vo ED) nếu có.

8. Đặt trạng từ chỉ nơi chốn trước BY, trạng từ chỉ thời gian sau BY nếu có. Place + by Obj + Time  

Ex: Mr Pike built this school in my village last year.

     → This school was built in my village by Mr Pike last year

9. Past Participle (V3 / Vo ED) as an Adjective, do đó động từ theo sau hầu hết là To infinitive.

          Ex: She makes me cry.   → I am made to cry.

III. NHỮNG TRƯỜNG HỢP PASSIVE VOICE ĐẶC BIỆT:

1-Causative form (thể truyền khuyến):   

     a/ Active voice:  -S + Have + Obj(chỉ người) + Vo.                        

            Ex:  I have him repair my bicycle.

                               -S + Get + Obj (chỉ người) + to infi.                     

           Ex:  I get him to repair my bicycle.

     b/ Passive voice: -S + Have/Get + Obj (chỉ vật) + V3 / Vo ED.      

Ex: I have/get my bicycle repaired  by him.

2. Sau những động từ chỉ ý kiến (verb of opinion): say, think , believe, report, rumour, know, consider, claim...

    Active: S1+ verb1 ( say/ believe/ think....) (that) +S2+ verb2...  

    Passive:   

Cách 1: It + be + V3 / Vo ED (verb1) + S2 + verb 2 ....

Cách 2: S2 + be + V3 / Vo ED (verb1) + to-infinitive (verb 2) /

                                                               + to have + V3 / Vo ED (verb 2) nếu V1 khác thì V2

Ex:      People say that he was crazy. 

→ Cách 1: It is said that he was crazy.  Or  

→ Cách 2: He is said to have been crazy. ( to have been vì say và was khác thì).

Ex: People say that money brings happiness.       

→ Cách 1: It is said that money brings happiness.  

→ Cách 2: Money is said to bring happiness.( Dùng to bring vì say và bring cùng thì)  

3. Sau những động từ chỉ giác quan(verb of perception): see, hear, smell, feel, taste, watch, notice, make, help, bid.

Ex: I hear him come in ---> He is heard to come in (nếu câu chủ động là coming thì giữ nguyên trong câu bị động).

4. Imperative(câu mệnh lệnh):  

Ex:  a. Open the door ---> Let the door be opened

           b. They let him go out ---> He was allowed to go out / He was let to go out. 

5. Sau những động từ: like, hate, love, want, wish, prefer, hope.

Ex: He wants KHA to take photographs→ He wants photographs to be taken by KHA. 

Ex: He does not like people laughing at him. --> He does not like being laughed at.

6. Các động từ: advise, agree, insist, arrange, suggest, propose, recommend, determine, decide, demand, beg, urge, order, request.     

Ex: He advised me to accept this job

→ Cách 1:  He advised me this job should be accepted.

→ Cách 2:  I was advised to accept this job.

7- Need + to be +  V3 / Vo ED = Need + Voing      

Ex:  Your shirt needs to be ironed / Your shirt needs ironing.

8- It + be + adjective + to-infinitive + sth

Passive: It + be + adjective + for sth + to be + V3 / Vo ED

Ex:  -  It is important to finish this exercise.       

             =>It is important for this exercise to be finished

        -  It is necessary to copy this lesson        

             =>  It is necessary for this lesson to be copied.

         -  It is time to feed the chicken    => It is time for the chicken to be fed.   

9- Các trường hợp khác:  

Ex   Please enter this way. ---> You are requested to enter this way.

Dưới đây là vài ví dụ về cách thêm BE và chia tương ứng với thì của câu chủ động

a.The simple present:   S + Vo/Ve/es→ S + am/is/are/ +V3 / Vo ED...

Ex: She cleans the floor everyday.        → Passive: The floor is cleaned everyday.

b.The present continuous:  S + am/ is/ are + Vo + ing  

                                        → S + am/ is/ are + being + V3 / Vo ED...

Ex: Mr.Baker is repairing the car →Passive: the car is being repaired by Mr Baker. 

c.The present perfect   S+ has/have + V3 / Vo ED   

                               →    S+ has/have + been + V3 / Vo ED

Ex: Someone has stolen  the bicycles   → Passive: The bicycles have been stolen 

d.The simple past:       S + Vo ED/ V2→ S + was/ were + V3 / Vo ED.

Ex: Where did they find the drugs ? ( S + V2/ V-ed)    

     →Passive: Where were the drugs found ? 

e.The past continuous(S + was/ were + V-ing .... )        

                              →    S + was / were + being + V3 / Vo ED

Ex: They were preparing lunch when I came there yesterday 

         → Lunch was being prepared when I came there yesterday.

f.  The past perfect:  S+ had + V3 / Vo ED     →  S+ had been + V3 / Vo ED

Ex: She had written almost ten pages by 3:00 pm.       

→  Almost ten pages had been written by 3:00 p.m 

g-  Who + V + object ...... ?                  Passive: - By whom..... ?-  Who...... by  ?

Ex:           Who wrote this novel ? 

→ Passive:  - By whom was this novel written ? 

      hoặc:  Who was this novel written by

B. BÀI TẬP VẬN DỤNG

Ex 1: Choose the correct answer.

1. An old woman feeds the pigeons.

The pigeons ________________________

A. are fed

B. were fed by an old woman.

2. A burglar broke the window.

The window _____________________

A. was broken

B. is broken by a burglar.

3. Someone has made a mistake.

A mistake _______________________

A. was made

B. has been made .

4. Everyone is going to love her.

She _____________________________

A. is going to be loved

B. was going to be loved by everyone.

5. Cervantes wrote 'Don Quixote'.

'Don Quixote' _______________________

A. was written by Cervantes.

B. has been written by Cervantes.

6. She is helping my sister.

My sister ________________

A. is helped

B. is being helped by her.

7. Pamela will drive the bus.

The bus ____________________

A. will been driven

B. will be driven by Pamela.

8. I was watering the plants.

The plants ___________________

A. were being watered

B. are being watered by me.

Đáp án

1 - A; 2 - A; 3 - B; 4 - A; 

5 - A; 6 - B; 7 - B; 8 - A;

Ex 2: Sắp xếp từ thành câu hoàn chỉnh

1. has/ The/ door/ opened./ been

2. on/ is/ grass/ the/ prohibited./ Walking   

3. Breakfast/ is/ at/ served/ 8.30.

4. spoken/ in/ English/ is/ shop./ that

5. were/ flowers/ The / this / morning. /watered/

6. meat/ been/ your/ The/ has/ cat!/ stolen/ by

7. is/ being/ Your/ hair/ brushed.

8. if/ they/ naughty./ will/ be/ children/ punished/ The/ are

9. yet.  / not/ car/ Your/ repaired/ is

10. because/ cake/ happy/ awful/ eaten!/ been/ am/ has/ I/ that

Đáp án

1 - The door has been opened.

2 - Walking on the grass is prohibited.

3 - Breakfast is served at 8.30.

4 -  English is spoken in that shop.

5 - The flowers were watered this morning.

6 - The meat has been stolen by your cat!

7-  Your hair is being brushed.

8 - The children will be punished if they are naughty.

9 - our car is not repaired yet.

10 - I am happy because that awful cake has been eaten!

C. BÀI TẬP RÈN LUYỆN

Exercise 1:Passive and Active voice:

  1. People drink a great deal of tea in England.
  2. Tom was writing two poems.
  3. She often takes her dog for a walk.
  4. People speak English all over the world.
  5. A group of students have met their friends at the railway station.
  6. They didn’t allow Tom to take these books home.
  7. The teacher won’t correct exercises tomorrow.
  8. How many trees did they cut down to build that fence?
  9. This well-known library attracts many people.
  10. My mother used to make us clean the house.
  11. He likes people to call him “Sir”.
  12. They are going to have someone repair their car 
  13. People say that he is intelligent.
  14. He can’t repair my bike.
  15. Mary has operated Tom since 10 o’clock.
  16. Mr. Smith has taught us French for 2 years.
  17. They didn’t look after the children properly.
  18. Nobody swept this street last week.
  19. How many lessons are you going to learn next month?
  20. You need to do this work.

Exercise 2: Rewrite the sentences in the passive:

1. They will construct some new airports on islands.

……………………………………………………………………………………

2. The new president might fulfill this promise as quickly as people would like.

……………………………………………………………………………………


3. They are going to find out the mystery.

……………………………………………………………………………………

4. You can buy videos like this one anywhere.

……………………………………………………………………………………

5. Someone will tell you when you go in to see the doctor.

……………………………………………………………………………………

6.They should have finished the hotel by the time you arrive.

……………………………………………………………………………………

7. Someone has to write the history of the European Community one day.

……………………………………………………………………………………

8. When is someone going to announce the results of the contest?

……………………………………………………………………………………

9. Where will your company send you next year?

……………………………………………………………………………………

10. They ought to have reported the accident to the police.

……………………………………………………………………………………

Exercise 3: Complete the sentences with the given words, active or passive:

  1. Chris has good news. The engineering firm where she had an interview yesterday (may + offer) ………………………….. her a job soon.
  2. Good news! I (may + offer) ………………………….. a job soon. I had an interview at an engineering firm yesterday.
  3. You (should + open) ………………….. the wine about three hours before you use it.
  4. You (mustn’t + move) …………………………..this man; he is too ill. He (will + have to + leave)  ………………………….. here.
  5. You (must + take) …………………………..those books back to the library yesterday.
  6. We tried, but the window (couldn’t + open) …………………………… 
  7. You (must + keep) ………………………….. meat in a refrigerator or it will spoil.
  8. I (had better + wash) ……………….. my clothes today, or they will be very smelly.
  9. Someone (should + tell) ………………………….. James the news immediately.
  10. This application (be supposed to + send) ………….. to the personnel department soon.

Exercise 4: Choose the best option A, B, C or D to complete the sentence.

1. I shouldn’t ………. so much coffee last night. I was wide awake till four in the morning.

A. drink

B. drank 

C. be drunk 

D. have drunk  

2. The profits are supposed …………………. among the shareholders.

A. to divide 

B. to be divided   

C. dividing 

D. being divided

3.  When you are on duty, your uniform must …………………. at all times.    

A. wear  

B. be wear 

C. be worn

D. be wearing

4. You promised her a letter; you ought to …………………. days ago.

A. write

B. be writing

C. have written

D. be written

5. After the test papers …………………. to the students in class tomorrow, the students …………………. their next assignment.

A. will return – will be given

B. will be returned – are given

C. are returning – are giving  

D. are returned – will be given

6. The class for next semester is too large. It ought to …………………. in half.

A. be divided 

B. divide

C. have divided

D. have been divided

7. The entire valley can …………………. from their mountain home.

A. see

B. be seen

C. being seen 

D. sees   

8. He is wearing a gold ring on his fourth finger. He must………………….

A. have been married 

B. be married

C. marry 

D. have married

9. A child should …………………. everything he or she wants.

A. gives

B. give

C. have been given 

D. be given

10. Your daughter has a good voice. Her interest in singing …………………. encouraged.

A. should be

B should

C. be 

D. have

11. I found this book on my desk when I came to class. It must ……. by one of the students in earlier class.

A. be left

B. have been left

C. leave

D. have left

12. You had better ………………….your chores before Mom gets home.

A. be finished

B. have finished

C. have been finished

D. finish

13. These books will have to …………………. to the library tomorrow.

A. return 

B. have returned

C. being returned 

D. be returned

14. Ann’s birthday was on the 5th, and now it’s already the 8th. Her birthday card …. a week ago.

A. will be sent 

B. can be sent       

C. should have been sent

D. should have sent

15. You …………………. me to Dr. Gray. We’ve already met.

A. don’t have to introduce

B. mustn’t be introduced         

C. shouldn’t introduce

D. mustn’t introduce

16. Bill ………………….Ann to the party tomorrow.

A. will be invited

B. will invite

C. will have invited

D. will have been invited.

17. A new hospital ………………….in this area.

A. are going to be built

B. builds

C. is going to be built

D. is going to build

18. Mike …………………. What’s going on in his English class.

A. can’t understand 

B. can’t be understood 

C. could have understood

D. could have been understood

19. Our test papers ………………….by our teachers now.

A. are marking

B. are being marked

C. will mark

D. will be marked          

20. ………………….the birds in your garden at three o’clock yesterday afternoon?

A. Did you feed

B. Were you fed 

C. Were you being fed 

D. Were you feeding

Exercise 5: Multiple choices

1. Many U.S. automobiles --------------- in Detroit, Michigan.

A. manufacture 

B. have manufactured   

C. are manufactured 

D. are manufacturing

2. I still can’t believe it! My bicycle ----------- last night.

A. was stolen

B. was stealing     

C. stolen 

D. stole 

3. Let’s go ahead and do it now. Nothing ------------ by waiting.

A. will be accomplished 

B. accomplished            

C. has accomplished 

D. accomplishes

4.” When ----------? “   - In 1928

A. penicillin was discovered

B. did penicillin discovered

C. was penicillin discovered

D. did penicillin discover 

5.  The rescuers ---------- for their bravery and fortitude in locating the lost mountain climbers.

A. were praised

B. praised                       

C. were praising

D. praising

6. Vitamin C ---------- by the human body. It gets into the bloods stream quickly.

A. absorbs easily

B. is easily absorbing              

C. is easily absorbed

D. absorbed easily

7. Renoir is one of the most popular French impressionist painters. His paintings ---------- masterpieces all over the world.

A. had considered

B. are considering                   

C. are considered 

D. consider

8. We can’t go along here because the road is ---------------.

A. been repaired

B. being repaired           

C. repaired

D. repairing

9. More than 50 films --------------- in HCMC since June.

A. were shown 

B. had been shown                  

C. have been shown

D. have shown

10. George is --------------- Lisa.

A. marry with 

B. marry to                     

C. married with

D. married to 

11.   Somebody cleans the room every day.

a. The room every day is cleaned    

b. The room is every day cleaned

c. The room is cleaned every day   

d. The room is cleaned by somebody every day

12.   They cancelled all flights because of fog.

a. All flights because of fog were cancelled.

b. All flights were cancelled because of fog.

c. All flights were because of fog cancelled

d. All flights were cancelled by them because of fog

13.   People don't use this road very often.

a. This road is not used very often

b. Not very often this road is not used

c. This road very often is not used

d. This road not very often is used

14. Somebody accused me of stealing money.

a. I was accused by somebody of stealing money.

b. I was accused of stealing money

c. I was accused of stealing money by somebody

d. I was accused stealing money.

15.   How do people learn languages?

a. How are languages learned? 

b. How are languages learned by people?

c. How languages are learned?

d. Languages are learned how?

16.   People warned us not to go out alone.

a. We were warned not going out alone

b. We were warned not to go out alone by people.

c. We weren't warned to go out alone.

d. We were warned not to go out alone.

17.   Somebody is using the computer at the moment.

a. The computer is being used at the moment.

b. The computer at the moment is being used.

c. The computer is being used by somebody at the moment.

d. The computer is used at the moment.

18.   I didn't realize that somebody was recording our conversation.

a. I didn’t realize that our conversation was recorded.

b. I didn't realize that our conversation was being recorded.

c. I didn't realize that our conversation was being recorded by someone.

d. Our conversation wasn't realized to be recorded.

19.   We found that they had cancelled the game.

a. We found that the fame had been cancelled.

b. The game had been cancelled.

c. We found that the game had been cancelled by them.

d. The game were found to be cancelled.

20.   They are building a new highway around the city.

a. A new highway is being built around the city.

b. A new highway is being built around the city by them

c. A new highway around the city is being built.

d. Around the city a new highway is being built.

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