Ngữ pháp, bài tập Câu gián tiếp lớp 8 có đáp án

Ngữ pháp, bài tập Câu gián tiếp lớp 8 có đáp án

Tải xuống

Tài liệu Ngữ pháp, bài tập Câu gián tiếp lớp 8 có đáp án trình bày khái quát lại ngữ pháp, cấu trúc, cách dùng cũng như bài tập có đáp án chi tiết nhằm mục đích giúp học sinh ôn luyện ngữ pháp và đạt kết quả cao trong các bài thi môn Tiếng Anh lớp 8.

CÂU TRỰC TIẾP- GIÁN TIẾP

( REPORTED SPEECH)

A. LÝ THUYẾT

I. KHÁI NIỆM

Câu tường thuật là câu thuật lại lời nói trực tiếp.

  • Lời nói trực tiếp (direct speech): là nói chính xác điều ai đó diễn đạt (còn gọi là trích dẫn). Lời của người nói sẽ được đặt trong dấu ngoặc kép.

Ví dụ: She said ,” The exam is difficult”. "The exam is difficult" là lời nói trực tiếp hay câu trực ti

  • Lời nói gián tiếp – câu tường thuật (indirect speech): Là thuật lại lời nói của một người khác dưới dạng gián tiếp, không dùng dấu ngoặc kép.

Ví dụ: Hoa said,”I want to go home” -> Hoa said she wanted to go home là câu gián tiếp (indirect speech)

II. CÁCH CHUYỂN CÂU TRỰC TIẾP SANG CÂU GIÁN TIẾP

Khi chuyển từ một lời nói trực tiếp sang gián tiếp khá đơn giản, chúng ta chỉ cần ghép nội dung tường thuật ở phía sau câu nói và hạ động từ của nó xuống một cấp quá khứ, đại từ được chuyển đổi cho phù hợp. Tuy nhiên, cần lưu ý một số vấn đề sau:

+     Nếu động từ tường thuật (reporting verb) chia ở các thì hiện tại chúng ta giữ nguyên thì (tense) của động từ chính, đại từ chỉ định và các trạng từ chỉ nơi chốn cũng như trạng từ chỉ thời gian trong câu trực tiếp khi chuyển sang gián tiếp.
Ví dụ:
- He says: “I’m going to Ha Noi next week.”
   
 He says he is going to Ha Noi next week.

+     Nếu động từ tường thuật (reporting verb) của câu ở thì quá khứ thì phải lùi động từ chính về quá khứ một bậc khi chuyển từ lời nói trực tiếp (direct speech) sang lời nói gián tiếp (indirect / reported speech) theo quy tắc sau:

  • Biến đổi thì của động từ và động từ khuyết thiếu theo bảng sau:

Câu trực tiếp

Câu gián tiếp

Present simple

Past simple

Present continuous

Past continuous

Present perfect

Past perfect

Past simple

Past perfect

Present perfect continuous

Past perfect continuous

Past continuous

Past perfect continuous

will

would

can

could

must/ have to

had to

may

might

  • Biến đổi đại từ và các từ hạn định theo bảng sau:


Câu trực tiếp

Câu gián tiếp

Chủ ngữ

I

he/ she

You

I/ We/ They

We

We/ They

Tân ngữ

me

him/ her

you

me/ us/ them

us

us/ them

Đại từ sở hữu

my

his/ her

your

my/ our/ their

our

our/ their

Đại từ sở hữu

mine

his/ hers

yours

mine/ ours/ theirs

ours

ours/ theirs

Đại từ chỉ định

this

the/ that

these

the/ those

  • Biến đổi trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian và nơi chốn theo bảng sau:

GY

Câu gián tiếp 

here

there

now

then/ at that moment

today/ tonight

that day/ that night

tomorrow

the next day

next week

the following week

yesterday

the previous day
 the day before

last week

the week before

ago

before

NOTE: Khi chuyển động từ các bạn chỉ cần nhớ lấy động từ gần chủ ngữ nhất giảm xuống 1 cột tức là:

  • Động từ ở cột 1 thì giảm xuống cột 2, ( nhớ  thêm ed khi không phải là đông từ bất quy tắc)
  • Động từ cột 2 thì giảm thành cột 3
  • Động từ cột 3 thêm had phía trước

Tuy nhiên, cần chú ý một số trường hợp sau đây không giảm thì động từ:

  • Nói về chân lý, sự thật.
  • Thì quá khứ hoàn thành.
  • Trong câu có năm xác định.
  • Các câu có cấu trúc sau: if only, as if, as though, wish, would rather, it’s high time, IF

III. CÁC LOẠI CÂU TƯỜNG THUẬT

1. Câu tường thuật ở dạng câu kể

S + said + (that) + S + V(lùi thì)

  • says/say to + O -> tells/tell + O
  • said to + O ->told+O

Eg: He said to me”I haven’t finished my work” -> He told me he hadn’t finished his work.

2. Câu tường thuật ở dạng câu hỏi

a.Yes/No questions:

S+asked/wanted to know/wondered+if/wether+S+V

Ex: ”Are you angry?”he asked -> He asked if/whether I was angry.

b.Wh-questions:

S + asked(+O)/wanted to know/wondered + Wh-words + S + V.

* says/say to + O  -> asks/ask + O

* said to + O  -> asked + O.

Ex: ”What are you talking about?”said the teacher. -> The teacher asked us what we were talking about.

3. Câu tường thuật ở dạng câu mệnh lệnh

*Khẳng định: S + told + O + to-infinitive.

Ex: ”Please wait for me here, Mary.

”Tom said -> Tom told Mary to wait for him there.

*Phủ định: : S + told + O + not to-infinitive.

Ex: ”Don’t talk in class”,the teacher said to us. –>The teacher told us not to talk in class.

  1. Một số dạng câu tường thuật đặc biệt

-> SHALL/ WOULD dùng để diễn tả đề nghị, lời mời:

Tom asked: 'Shall I bring you some tea?'

 -> Tom offered to bring me some tea.

Tom asked: 'Shall we meet at the theatre?'

 -> Tom suggested meeting at the theatre.

-> WILL/ WOULD/ CAN/ COULD dùng để diễn tả sự yêu cầu:

Tom asked: 'Will you help me, please?'

 -> Tom asked me to help him.

Jane asked Tom: 'Can you open the door for me, Tom?'

 -> Jane asked Tom to open the door for her.

B. BÀI TẬP VẬN DỤNG

Bài 1: Hoàn thành các câu sau.

1. "Where is my umbrella?" she asked.
 She asked............................................. ......................

2. "How are you?" Martin asked us.
 Martin asked us................................................ ...................

3. He asked, "Do I have to do it?"
 He asked............................................. ......................

4. "Where have you been?" the mother asked her daughter.
 The mother asked her daughter.......................................... .........................

5. "Which dress do you like best?" she asked her boyfriend.
 She asked her boyfriend......................................... ..........................

6. "What are they doing?" she asked.
 She wanted to know.............................................. .....................

7. "Are you going to the cinema?" he asked me.
 He wanted to know.............................................. .....................

8. The teacher asked, "Who speaks English?"
 The teacher wanted to know.............................................. .....................

9. "How do you know that?" she asked me.
 She asked me................................................ ...................

10. "Has Caron talked to Kevin?" my friend asked me.
 My friend asked me................................................ ...................

11. "What's the time?" he asked.
 → He wanted to know .................................................. .

12. "When will we meet again?" she asked me.
 → She asked me .................................................. .

13. "Are you crazy?" she asked him.
 → She asked him .................................................. .

14. "Where did they live?" he asked.
 → He wanted to know .................................................. .

15. "Will you be at the party?" he asked her.
 → He asked her .................................................. .

16. "Can you meet me at the station?" she asked me.
 → She asked me .................................................. .

17. "Who knows the answer?" the teacher asked.
 → The teacher wanted to know .................................................. .

18. "Why don't you help me?" she asked him.
 → She wanted to know .................................................. .

19. "Did you see that car?" he asked me.
 → He asked me .................................................. .

20. "Have you tidied up your room?" the mother asked the twins.
 → The mother asked the twins ..................................................

21. "Stop talking, Joe," the teacher said.
 → The teacher told Joe .................................................. .

22. "Be patient," she said to him.
 → She told him .................................................. .

23. "Go to your room," her father said to her.
 → Her father told her .................................................. .

24. "Hurry up," she said to us.
 → She told us .................................................. .

25. "Give me the key," he told her.
 → He asked her .................................................. .

26. "Play it again, Sam," she said.
 → She asked Sam .................................................. .

27. "Sit down, Caron" he said.
 → He asked Caron .................................................. .

28. "Fill in the form, Sir," the receptionist said.
 → The receptionist asked the guest .................................................. .

29. "Take off your shoes," she told us.
 → She told us .................................................. .

30. "Mind your own business," she told him.

→ She told him .................................................. .

Bài 2: Bài tập câu tường thuật pha trộn negative và positive

1. She said, "Go upstairs."
 → She told me .................................................. .

2. "Close the door behind you," he told me.
 → He told me .................................................. .

3. "Don't be late," he advised us.
 → He advised us .................................................. .

4. "Stop staring at me," she said.
 → She told him .................................................. .

5. "Don't be angry with me," he said.
 → He asked her .................................................. .

6. "Leave me alone," she said.
 → She told me .................................................. .

7. "Don't drink and drive," she warned us.
 → She warned us .................................................. .

8. "John, stop smoking," she said.
 → She told John .................................................. .

9. "Don't worry about us," they said.
 → They told her .................................................. .

10. "Meet me at the cinema." he said.
 → He asked me .................................................. .

11. He said, "I like this song."
 → He said .................................................. .

12. "Where is your sister?" she asked me.
 → She asked me .................................................. .

13. "I don't speak Italian," she said.
 → She said .................................................. .

14. "Say hello to Jim," they said.
 → They asked me .................................................. .

15. "The film began at seven o'clock," he said.
 → He said that ..................................................


Đáp án

Bài 1:

  1. She asked me where her umbrella was.
  2. Martin asked us how we were.
  3. He asked if he had to do it.
  4. The mother asked her daughter where she had been.
  5. She asked her boyfriend which dress he liked best.
  6. She wanted to know what they were doing.
  7. He wanted to know if I was going to the cinema.
  8. The teacher wanted to know who spoke English.
  9. She asked me how I knew that.
  10. My friend asked me if Caron had talked to Kevin.
  11. He wanted to know what time it was.
  12. She asked me when we would meet again.
  13. She asked him if he was crazy.
  14. He wanted to know where they had lived.
  15. He asked her if she would be at the party.
  16. She asked me if I could meet her at the station.
  17. The teacher wanted to know who knew the answer.
  18. She wanted to know why he didn’t help her.
  19. He asked me if I had seen that car.
  20. The mother asked the twins if they had tidied up their room.
  21. The teacher told Joe to stop talking.
  22. She told him to be patient.
  23. Her father told her to go to her room.
  24. She told us to hurry up.
  25. He asked her to give him the key.
  26. She asked Sam to play it again.
  27. He asked Caron to sit down.
  28. The receptionist asked the guest to fill in the form.
  29. She told us to take off our shoes.
  30. She told him to mind his own business.

Bài 2

  1. She told me to go upstairs.
  2. He told me to close the door behind me.
  3. He advised us not to be late.
  4. She told him to stop staring at her.
  5. He asked her not to be angry with him.
  6. She told me to leave her alone.
  7. She warned us not to drink and drive.
  8. She told John to stop smoking.
  9. They told her not to worry about them.
  10. He asked me to meet him at the cinema.
  11. He said that he liked that song.
  12. She asked me where my sister was.
  13. She said that she didn’t speak Italian.
  14. They asked me to say hello to Jim.
  15. He said that the film began at seven o’clock.

C. BÀI TẬP RÈN LUYỆN

Exercise 1: Chuyển các câu sau về dạng câu trần thuật

1. “If the weather is fine, I will go on a picnic with my friends,” she said.

.......................................................................................................................................................

2. “What would you do if you had three days off ?” I asked him.

.......................................................................................................................................................

3. “I would have come to see you if I had known your address, Jim” she said.

.......................................................................................................................................................

4. “I’m sure she will help you if you ask her.” , he told me.

.......................................................................................................................................................

5. “If Today were Sunday, we wouldn’t go to school.” They said to me.

.......................................................................................................................................................

6. She said to me, “If I were you, I wouldn’t tell her about this.”

.......................................................................................................................................................

7. “There would not be enough seats if a lot of guests came.”, they said.

.......................................................................................................................................................

8. “You will be surprised if you meet him.” , Peter said to Linda.

.......................................................................................................................................................

9.The boy said : “I won’t be strong if I don’t swim everyday.”

.......................................................................................................................................................

10. “What would you do if you saw a snake ?” Nam asked Nga.

.......................................................................................................................................................

11. “We’ll have lunch outside in the garden if it’s not cold.” ,Mr John said.

.......................................................................................................................................................

12. “Tom would win more races if he trained hard.” , The man said.

.......................................................................................................................................................

13. “If you feel like a chat, phone me tonight.” David said to me.

.......................................................................................................................................................

14. “If you isn’t eating so much junk food, you would be a lot fitter.” Mother said.

.......................................................................................................................................................

15. “I will be surprised if Mary doesn’t pass the exam.” , our teacher said.

.......................................................................................................................................................

16. “If I knew her hobbies, I could let you know.” He said to me.

.......................................................................................................................................................

17. “If I won the lottery, I would buy a new car.” , the man said.

.......................................................................................................................................................

18. “If you had listened to my advice, you wouldn’t have made such a big mistakes.”

Julia said to LiLi.

.......................................................................................................................................................

Exercise 2: Chọn đáp án đúng nhất.

1. Jack asked me _____.

A. where do you come from?

B. where I came from  

C. where I came from

D. where did I come from?

2. She asked me _____ I liked pop music.

 A.when 

B.what

C.if 

D.x

3. The doctor ____ him to take more exercise.

 A.told

B.tell

C. have told

D. are telling

4. I wanted to know_____ return home.

A. when would she 

B. when will she

C. when she will

D. when she would

5. Claire told me that her father____ a race horse.

A. owns

B. owned

C. owning

D. A and B

6. What did that man say ______?

A. at you

B. for you

C. to you

D. you

7. I rang my friend in Australia yesterday, and she said it _______ raining there.

A. is

B. were

C. has been

D. was

8. The builders have ______ that everything will be ready on time.

A. promised

B. promise

C. promises

D. promising

9. The doctor _______ him to take more exercise.

A. told

B. tell 

C. have told 

D. are telling

10. The last time I saw Linda, she looked very relaxed. She explained she’d been on holiday the ______ week.

A. ago

B. following

C. next

D. previous

11.  Yesterday, Laura ______ him to put some shelves up.

A. asked

B. is asking

C. ask

D. was asked

12. Tom has ______ this story wasn’t completely true.

A. admitting that

B. was admitted that 

C. admitted that

D. admit that

13. When I rang Tessa some time last week, she said she was busy ______ day.

A. that

B. the 

C. then

D. this

14. I wonder _____ the tickets are on sale yet.

A. what

B. when

C. where 

D. whether

15. Mathew _____ Emma that her train was about to leave.

A.  has reminded 

B. has reminded that

C. reminded

D. reminded that

16. Hello, Jim. I didn’t expect to see you today. Sophie said you _____ ill.

A. are

B. were

C. was

D. should be

17. Ann ______ and left.

A.  said goodbye to me

B. says goodbye to me

C. tell me goodbye

D. told me goodbye

18. I told you ______ switch off the computer, didn’t I ?

A. don’t

B. not

C. not to

D. to not

19. Bill was slow, so I ________ hurry up.

A. tell him

B. told him for 

C. told to

D. told him to

20. Sarah was driving to fast, so I ______ to slow down.

A. asked her 

B. asked

C. ask

D.have asked her

21. Someone ______ me there’s been an accident on the motorway.

A. asked

B. said

C. spoke

D. told

22. Sue was very pessimistic about the situation. I advised her _____.

A. no worry 

B. not worry

C. no to worry

D. not to worry

23. I couldn’t move the piano alone, so I asked Tom_______.

A. giving a hand

B. gave a hand

C. to give a hand

D. give a hand

24. Tom said that New York _______ more lively than London.

A. is

B. be

C. was

D. were

25. When he was at Oliver’s flat yesterday, Martin asked if he ______ use the phone.

A. can

B. could

C. may

D. must

26. George couldn’t help me. He ______ me to ask Kate.

A. tell

B. said

C. told

D. say

27. Judy ______ going for a walk, but no one else wanted to.

A.admitted

B. offered

C. promised

D. suggested

28. I said that I had met her ______ .

A. yesterday

B. the previous day

C. the day

D. the before day.

29. The man asked the boys ______ .

A. why did they fight

B. why they were fighting       

C. why they fight 

D.why were they  fighting

30. “______the door”, he said.

A. please open   

B. open pleased

C. please to open

D. please, opening

31. I wanted to know ______ return home.

A. when would she 

B. when will she

C. when she will 

D. when she would

32. The woman wonders _______ doing well at school.

A. whether her children are

B. if her children were

B. whether her children were

D. her children are if

33. Peter said he was leaving for Paris ______.

A. next week

B. the week previous

C. following week

D. the following week

34. “I don’t usually drink milk when ______ ” Mrs. Pike said.

A. she was hungry

B. I was hungry

C. I am hungry

D. I will be

35. They said that their house had been broken into ______.

A. the two days before

B. two days ago

C. two days before

D. since two days

Tải xuống

Xem thêm các bài học Ngữ pháp Tiếng Anh lớp 8 đầy đủ, chi tiết khác:

Giới thiệu kênh Youtube VietJack

Ngân hàng trắc nghiệm lớp 9 tại khoahoc.vietjack.com

300 BÀI GIẢNG GIÚP CON LUYỆN THI LỚP 10 CHỈ 399K

Phụ huynh đăng ký mua khóa học lớp 9 cho con, được tặng miễn phí khóa ôn thi học kì. Cha mẹ hãy đăng ký học thử cho con và được tư vấn miễn phí. Đăng ký ngay!

Tổng đài hỗ trợ đăng ký khóa học: 084 283 45 85

Đã có app VietJack trên điện thoại, giải bài tập SGK, SBT Soạn văn, Văn mẫu, Thi online, Bài giảng....miễn phí. Tải ngay ứng dụng trên Android và iOS.

Theo dõi chúng tôi miễn phí trên mạng xã hội facebook và youtube:

Nếu thấy hay, hãy động viên và chia sẻ nhé! Các bình luận không phù hợp với nội quy bình luận trang web sẽ bị cấm bình luận vĩnh viễn.


Nhóm học tập 2k7