300 câu trắc nghiệm Đọc hiểu Tiếng Anh có đáp án cực hay (nâng cao - Phần 2)

300 câu trắc nghiệm Đọc hiểu Tiếng Anh có đáp án cực hay (nâng cao - Phần 2)

Exercise 1: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

Quảng cáo

   Sound moves form its source to the ear by wavelike fluctuations in air pressure, something like the crests and troughs of ocean waves. Once way to keep from hearing sound is to use ear plugs. Another way is to cancel out the sound with anti-sound. Using a noisemarker controlled by a microprocessor, engineers have produced sound waves that are half a wavelength out of phase with those of the noise to be quieted-each crest is matched to a trough, and vice versa. Once the researchers have recorded the offending sound, a microprocessor calculates the amplitude and wavelength of sound that will cancel out the crests and troughs of noise. It then produces an electric current that is amplified and fed to a loudspeaker, which produces antisound and wipes out the noise. If the anti-sound goes out of synchronization, a microphone picks up the leftover sound and sends it back to the microprocessor, which changes the phase of the anti- sound just enough to cause complete silence.

   The research team has concentrated on eliminating low-frequency noise from ship engines, which causes fatigue that can impair the efficiency and alertness of the crew, and may mask the warning sounds of alarm and fog signals.

Question 1: What is the main purpose of the passage?

A. To discuss a physical handicap     B. To warn about a growing danger

C. To describe the structure of the ear     D. To report on a new invention

Quảng cáo

Đáp án D

Mục đích của bài này là To report on a new invention (Giới thiệu một phát minh mới). Phát minh đó là sử dụng bộ vi xử lý (a microprocessor) để loại bỏ các âm thanh không mong muốn.

Question 2: The passage compares sound to_________.

A. the rising and falling of water in the ocean     B. the crests and valleys of mountain ranges

C. a flag waving in the air     D. a machine for gauging air pressure

Đáp án A

Thông tin ở câu đầu tiên của bài đọc: Sound moves form its source to the ear by wavelike fluctuations in air pressure, something like the crests and troughs of ocean waves. (Âm thanh di chuyển hình thành nguồn gốc của nó trong tai bởi biến động trong áp suất không khí, một cái gì đó giống như các đỉnh và đáy của sóng biển.)

Question 3: The passage discusses a way to deal with an offensive noise by_________.

A. diverting people's attention from it     B. masking it with a louder noise

C. canceling it out electronically     D. removing its source

Đáp án C

Thông tin ở câu thứ 2 và 3 của đoạn đầu tiên: One way to keep from hearing sound is to use ear plugs. Another way is to cancel out the sound with anti-sound. (Một cách để cách âm là sử dụng nút tai. Một cách nữa là triệt tiêu âm thanh với dụng cụ chống âm)

Question 4: The microprocessor described in the passage will probably be used for_________.

A. composing music     B. repairing alarm systems

C. eliminating engine noises     D. intensifying for warning sounds

Đáp án C

Thông tin ở đoạn 1: Using a noisemarker controlled by a microprocessor, engineers have produced sound waves that are half a wavelength out of phase with those of the noise to be quieted-each crest is matched to a trough, and vice versa. Once the researchers have recorded the offending sound, a microprocessor calculates the amplitude and wavelength of sound that will cancel out the crests and troughs of noise. It then produces an electric current that is amplified and fed to a loudspeaker, which produces anti-sound and wipes out the noise.

⇒ microprocessor (bộ vi xử lý) được dùng để loại bỏ âm thanh

Question 5: The researcher mentioned in the passage are concerned about unwanted noise because it can_________.

A. cause deafness     B. create hazardous working conditions

C. influence ocean waves     D. damage loudspeakers and sound equipment

Đáp án B

Thông tin ở câu cuối: … which causes fatigue that can impair the efficiency and alertness of the crew, and may mask the warning sounds of alarm and fog signals.

(những âm thanh không mong muốn có thể gây mệt mỏi, ảnh hưởng đến năng suất và sự tỉnh táo của phi hành đoàn, và có thể che mất âm thanh cảnh báo và tín hiệu bão ⇒ tạo ra tình trạng làm việc nguy hiểm)

Question 6: According to the passage, what group of people will probably first from the use of the microprocessor?

A. Ship's crews     B. Research engineers

C. People with insomnia     D. Engine repair teams

Đáp án A

Thông tin ở đoạn cuối: The research team has concentrated on eliminating low-frequency noise from ship engines, which causes fatigue that can impair the efficiency and alertness of the crew

Quảng cáo

Question 7: A paragraph following the passage would most probably discuss_________.

A. the nature of fog     B. a way to improve alarm systems

C. other causes of fatigue     D. other uses for the microprocessor

Đáp án D

Bài đọc này chủ yếu nói về công dụng loại bỏ, tách âm thanh của bộ vi xử lý (a microprocessor). Vì vậy, đoạn sau của bài đọc này có thể sẽ nói về những công dụng khác của bộ vi xử lý này.

Exercise 2: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

   The Hindu cultural celebrates marriage as a pure and pristine rite enabling two individuals start their journey of life together. It puts emphasis on the values of happiness, harmony and growth and could be traced back from the Vedic times.

   Months before the wedding ceremony, an engagement is held which is called "mangni". The couple is blessed here with gifts, jewelry and clothes. Another important ritual is the "mehendi" which is a paste made from the leaves of henna plant. It is the traditional art of adorning the hands and the feet of the bride with mehendi and the name of the groom is also hidden in the design.

   On the day of marriage, the couple exchanges garlands as a gesture of acceptance of one another and a pledge to respect one another as partners which is known as "jaimala". This is followed by "kanyadaan", where the father of the bride places her hand in the groom's hand requesting him to accept her as an equal partner.

   Another ritual is the "havan" in which the couple invokes Agni, the god of Fire, to witness their commitment to each other. Crushed sandalwood, herbs, sugar rice and oil are offered to the ceremonial fire. The "gath bandhan" takes place where scarves of the bride and groom are tied together symbolizing their eternal bonThis signifies their pledge before God to love each other and remain loyal. The couple then takes four "mangal pheras" or walk around the ceremonial fire, representing four goals in life: "Dharma", religious and moral duties; "Artha", prosperity; "Kama" earthly pleasures; "Moksha", spiritual salvation.

   The couple also takes seven steps together to begin their journey, called the "saptapardi". Then the ritual of "sindoor" takes place where the groom applies a small dot of vermilion, a red powder to the bride's forehead and welcomes her as his partner for life. This signifies the completion of the marriage. The parents of the bride and the groom then give their blessings, "ashirwad" to the newlywed couple as they touch the feet of their parents.

Quảng cáo

Question 1: What does the word magni stand for?

A. the wedding

B. the paste made from the leave of one another

C. the engagement

D. the gesture of acceptance of one another

Đáp án C

– magni: lễ đính hôn. – dòng thứ nhất đoạn thứ 2. “Months before the wedding ceremony, an engagement is held which is called "mangni".”

Question 2: What do the Hindu people think about marriage?

A. It is entirely a spiritual traditional ritual allowing two individuals to live together.

B. It is a belief in the growth of a family newly formed by two individuals.

C. It is a wish of happiness and harmony to come to two individuals.

D. It is just a living-together announcement of two individuals.

Đáp án A

Dòng thứ nhất, đoạn thứ nhất. “The Hindu cultural celebrates marriage as a pure and pristine rite enabling two individuals start their journey of life together. It puts emphasis on the values of happiness, harmony and growth and could be traced back from the Vedic times.”

Question 3: What can the word adorning be best replaced by?

A. decorating     B. painting     C. repairing     D. dying

Đáp án A

adorn = decorate : trang điểm

Question 4: What can the word invokes be best replaced by?

A. tells     B. says    C. prays    D. talks

Đáp án C

invoke = pray : cầu, khấn.

Question 5: Why does the couple exchange garlands?

A. to do a ritual

B. to show both their acceptance of and the swear to respect the partner.

C. to express their acceptance of one another and a wish of happiness.

D. to express their vow to respect each other for the whole life.

Đáp án B

Dòng thứ nhất, đoạn thứ ba. “On the day of marriage, the couple exchanges garlands as a gesture of acceptance of one another and a pledge to respect one another as partners which is known as "jaimala".”

Question 6: When is the wedding ceremony completed?

A. When the parents of the bride and the groom give their blessings to the couple.

B. When the couple touches their parents' feet.

C. When the couple makes seven steps together.

D. When the groom applies a small dot of vermillion of the bride's forehead.

Đáp án D

Dòng thứ nhất, đoạn cuối cùng. “Then the ritual of "sindoor" takes place where the groom applies a small dot of vermilion, a red powder to the bride's forehead and welcomes her as his partner for life. This signifies the completion of the marriage.”

Exercise 3: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

   A Japanese construction company plans to create a huge independent city-state, akin to the legendary Atlantis, in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. The city, dubbed “Marinnation”, would have about one million inhabitants, two airports, and possibly even a space port. Marinnation, if built, would be a separate country but could serve as a home for international organisations such as the United Nations and the World Bank.

   Aside from the many political and social problems that would have to be solved, the engineering task envisaged is monumental. The initial stage requires the building of a circular dam eighteen miles in diameter attached to the sea bed in a relatively shallow place in international waters. Then, several hundred powerful pumps, operating for more than a year, would suck out the sea water from within the dam. When empty and dry, the area would have a city constructed on it. The actual land would be about 300 feet below the sea level. According to designers, the hardest task from an engineering point of view would be to ensure that the dam is leak proof and earthquake proof.

   If all goes well, it is hoped that Marinnation could be ready for habitation at the end of the second decade of the twenty-first century. Whether anyone would want to live in such an isolated and artificial community, however, will remain an open question until that time.

Question 1: According to the text, Marrination, when built, will be a(an)__________ city.

A. underwater     B. underground     C. marine     D. legendary

Đáp án C

underwater city : thành phố dưới đáy biển. Dòng đầu tiên, đoạn thứ nhất. “A Japanese construction company plans to create a huge independent city-state, akin to the legendary Atlantis, in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.”

Question 2: The word ‘akin’ in paragraph 1 could be best replaced by __________.

A. likely     B. close     C. next     D. similar

Đáp án D

Akin = similar (giống)

Question 3: Which of the following would NOT be a problem for the construction plan?

A. social     B. political     C. engineering     D. financial

Đáp án D

Dòng thứ nhất đoạn thứ 2. “Aside from the many political and social problems that would have to be solved, the engineering task envisaged is monumental.”

Question 4: Which of the following is NOT true according to the text?

A. Marinnation would have about one million inhabitants.

B. Marinnation will be built in a deep place in the Pacific Ocean.

C. Marinnation will be located in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.

D. Marinnation could be served as home for international organisations.

Đáp án B

Dòng thứ 2, đoạn thứ 2. “The initial stage requires the building of a circular dam eighteen miles in diameter attached to the sea bed in a relatively shallow place in international waters.”

Question 5: The word ‘monumental’ in Paragraph 2 means __________.

A. important and difficult     B. like a large monument

C. important and historic     D. serving as a monument

Đáp án A

monumental : quan trọng, vĩ đại, xuất sắt, đầy thách thức.

Question 6: The phrase ‘suck out’ in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to which of the following?

A. draw out     B. dry up     C. take out     D. pull out

Đáp án A

suck out = draw out : dẫn nước ra.

Question 7: According to the text, people could come to live in the future city in the year _______.

A. 2002     B. 2012     C. 2010     D. 2020

Đáp án D

Dòng thứ nhất, đoạn thứ 3. “If all goes well, it is hoped that Marinnation could be ready for habitation at the end of the second decade of the twenty-first century.”

Question 8: What does the author imply in the last sentence of the passage?

A. People will ask an open question about living in Marinnation.

B. The construction of Marinnation could never be completed in time.

C. People might not want to live in an isolated and artificial community.

D. People will ask how they can live in such an isolated and artificial city.

Đáp án C

Tác giả đặt câu hỏi về việc liệu người ta có muốn sống trong một cộng đồng cách biệt và nhân tạo như thế không.

Exercise 4: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

   Hummingbirds are small, often brightly colored birds of the family Trochilidae that live exclusively in the Americas. About 12 species are found in North America, but only the ruby-throated hummingbird breeds in eastern North America and is found from Nova Scotia to Florida. The greatest variety and number of species are found in South America. Another hummingbird species is found from southeastern Alaska to northern California.

   Many hummingbirds are minute. But even the giant hummingbird found in western South America, which is the largest known hummingbird, is only about 8 inches long and weighs about two-thirds of an ounce. The smallest species, the bee hummingbird of Cuba and the Isle of Pines, measures slightly more than 5.5 centimeters and weighs about two grams.

   Hummingbirds' bodies are compact, with strong muscles. They have wings shaped like blades. Unlike the wings of other birds, hummingbird wings connect to the body only at the shoulder joint, which allows them to fly not only forward but also straight up and down, sideways, and backward. Because of their unusual wings hummingbirds can also hover in front of flowers so they can suck nectar and find insects. The humming- bird's bill, adapted for securing nectar from certain types of flowers, is usually rather long and always slender, and it is curved slightly downward in many species.

   The hummingbird’s body feathers are sparse and more like scales than feathers. The unique character of the feathers produces brilliant and iridescent colors, resulting from the refraction of light by the feathers. Pigmentation of other feathers also contributes to the unique color and look. Male and female hummingbirds look alike in some species but different in most species; males of most species are extremely colorful.

   The rate at which a hummingbird beats its wings does not vary, regardless of whether it is flying forward, flying in another direction, or merely hovering. But the rate does vary with the size of the bird - the larger the bird, the lower the rate, ranging from 80 beats per second for the smallest species to 10 times per second for larger species. Researchers have not yet been able to record the speed of the wings of the bee humming-bird but imagine that they beat even faster. Most hummingbirds, especially the smaller species, emit scratchy, twittering, or squeaky sounds. The wings, and sometimes the tail feathers, often produce humming, hissing, or popping sounds, which apparently function much as do the songs of other birds.

Question 1: According to the passage, where are hummingbirds found?

A. Throughout the world     B. In South America only

C. In North America only     D. In North and South America

Đáp án D

Giải thích: About 12 species are found in North America, but only the ruby-throated hummingbird breeds in eastern North America and is found from Nova Scotia to Florida.

Question 2: The author indicates that the ruby-throated hummingbird is found _______.

A. throughout North America.     B. in California.

C. in South America.     D. in the eastern part of North America

Đáp án D

Giải thích: but only the ruby-throated hummingbird breeds in eastern North America and is found from Nova Scotia to Florida.

Question 3: The word “minute” in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to _______.

A. extremely tiny    B. extremely fast    C. unique     D. organized

Đáp án A

Giải thích: ‘minute’ = ‘extremely tiny’ (rất nhỏ)

Question 4: The word which in the second paragraph refers to _______.

A. western South America.     B. the giant hummingbird.

C. all hummingbirds.     D. Florida hummingbirds.

Đáp án B

Đây là dạng câu hỏi quy chiếu từ vựng.

Trong câu, đại từ quan hệ WHICH bổ nghĩa cho cụm “the giant hummingbird” (loài chim ruồi khổng lồ).

Question 5: What does the author imply about the rate hummingbirds’ wings beat?

A. Although the bee hummingbird is the smallest, its wings don't beat the fastest.

B. The hummingbird's wings beat faster when it is sucking nectar than when it is just flying.

C. The rate is not much different than that of other birds of its size.

D. The speed at which a bee hummingbird’s wings beat is not actually known.

Đáp án D

Theo thông tin xuất hiện ở cuối đoạn 5 “Researchers have not yet been able to record the speed of the wings of the bee humming-bird but imagine that they beat even faster.” (Các nhà nghiên cứu vẫn chưa thể ghi lại tốc độ đập cánh của loài chim ruồi ong nhưng hãy tưởng tượng là chúng đập thậm chí còn nhanh hơn.), ta có suy ra rằng tốc độ đập cánh của chim ruồi ong vẫn chưa được biết rõ.

Question 6: The author indicates that a hummingbird’s wings are different from those of other birds because

A. they attach to the body at one point only.

B. they attach to the body at more points than other birds.

C. they attach and detach from the body.

D. they are controlled by a different section of the brain.

Đáp án A

Tác giả chỉ ra rằng đôi cánh của chim ruồi khác với các loài chim khác ở chỗ chúng liền với cơ thể chỉ tại một điểm. Thông tin xuất hiện ở đầu đoạn 3 “Unlike the wings of other birds, hummingbird wings connect to the body only at the shoulder joint...”.

Question 7: According to the passage, what causes the unique color and look of hummingbirds?

A. The color of the feathers

B. The structure of the feathers as well as pigmentation

C. The rapidity of flight

D. The pigmentation of the body

Đáp án B

Theo bài đọc này, cấu trúc của bộ lông và màu da tạo ra màu sắc và diện mạo độc nhất vô nhị

của loài chim ruồi.

Thông tin xuất hiện ở giữa đoạn 4 “The unique character of the feathers produces brilliant and iridescent colors, resulting from the refraction of light by the feathers. Pigmentation of other feathers also contributes to the unique color and look.”

Exercise 5: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

   If we believe that clothing has to do with covering the body, and costumes with the choice of a particular form of garment for a particular use, then we can say that clothing depends primarily on such physical conditions as climate, health, and textile manufacture, whereas costumes reflect social factors such as religious beliefs, aesthetics, personal status, and the wish to be distinguished from or to emulate our fellows.

   The ancient Greeks and the Chinese believed that we first covered our bodies for some physical reason such as protecting ourselves from the weather elements. Ethnologists and psychologists have invoked psychological reasons: modesty in the case of ancients, and taboo, magical influence and the desire to please for the moderns.

   In early history, costumes must have fulfilled a function beyond that of simple utility, perhaps through some magical significance, investing primitive man with the attributes of other creatures. Ornaments identified the wearer with animals, gods, heroes or other men. This identification remains symbolic in more sophisticated societies. We should bear in mind that the theater has its distant origins in sacred performances, and in all periods children at play have worn disguises, so as to adapt gradually to adult life.

   Costumes helped inspire fear or impose authority. For a chieftain, costumes embodied attributes expressing his power, while a warrior's costume enhanced his physical superiority and suggested he was superhuman. In more recent times, professional or administrative costume has been devised to distinguish the wearer and express personal or delegated authority; this purpose is seen clearly in the judge's robes and the police officer’s uniform. Costume denotes power, and since power is usually equated with wealth, costume came to be an expression of social caste and material prosperity. Military uniform denotes rank and is intended to intimidate to protect the body and to express membership in a group. At the bottom of the scale, there are such compulsory costumes as the convict’s uniform. Finally, costume can possess a religious significance that combines various elements: an actual or symbolic identification with a god, the desire to express this in earthly life, and the desire to enhance the wearer's position of respect.

Question 1: The passage mainly discusses costume in terms of its _______

A. physical protection     B. religious significance

C. social function     D. beauty and attractiveness

Đáp án C

Bài đọc này đề cập đến trang phục chủ yếu về chức năng xã hội.

Thông tin thể hiện rõ nhất ở cuối đoạn 1 (đoạn giới thiệu) “... whereas costume reflect social factors such as religious beliefs, aesthetics, personal status, and the wish to be distinguished from or to emulate our fellows”

Question 2: What is the purpose of the paragraph 1?

A. To describe the uses of costume

B. To contrast costume with the clothing

C. To trade the origins of costume

D. To point out that clothing developed before costume

Đáp án B

Mục đích của đoạn 1 là thể hiện sự khác biệt giữa trang phục (costume) và quần áo (clothing), chủ yếu thể hiện qua từ “whereas”, cụ thể là “we can say that clothing depends primarily on such physical conditions as climate, health, and textile manufacture, whereas costumes reflect social factors such as religious beliefs, aesthetics, personal status, and the wish to be distinguished from or to emulate our fellows” (chúng ta có thể nói rằng quần áo phụ thuộc chủ yếu vào các điều kiện khách quan như khí hậu, sức khỏe và việc sản xuất chất liệu, trái lại trang phục phản ánh các yếu tố xã hội như niềm tin tôn giáo, thẩm mỹ, địa vị cá nhân và mong muốn được khác với hoặc cạnh tranh với bạn bè.)

Question 3: Psychological reasons for wearing garments include _______.

A. protection from cold     B. availability of materials

C. prevention of illness    D. wishing to give pleasure

Đáp án D

Lý do tâm lý cho việc mặc quần áo bao gồm cả mong muốn được thỏa mãn.

Thông tin xuất hiện ở đoạn 2 “Ethnologists and psychologists have invoked psychological reasons: modesty in the case of ancients, and taboo, magical influence and the desire to please for the moderns.” (các nhà dân tộc học và các nhà tâm lý học đã đưa ra những lý do về tâm lý: tính giản dị đối với những người có đại và điều cấm kỵ, ảnh hưởng kỳ diệu và khao khát được thỏa mãn đối với người hiện đại.)

Question 4: The word “Ornaments” in paragraph 3 is closet in meaning to _______.

A. garments     B. representation    C. details     D. decorations

Đáp án D

Theo ngữ cảnh của bài, từ “ornaments” = “decorations” (đồ trang trí, phụ kiện).

Question 5: It can be inferred from paragraph 3 that _______.

A. The function of costume has become very sophisticated.

B. Children like to identify with other creature by wearing costumes.

C. Primitive people wore cloths only for sacred performances.

D. Costume no longer fulfills a function beyond simple utility.

Đáp án A

Từ thông tin ở đoạn 3, ta có thể suy ra rằng chức năng của trang phục đã trở nên rất phức tạp.

Question 6: Why does the author mention the police officer's uniform?

A. To illustrate the aesthetic function of costume

B. To identify the wearer with a hero

C. To suggest that police are superhuman

D. To show how costume signifies authority

Đáp án D

Đây là câu hỏi về mục đích của tác giả.

Tác giả nhắc đến quân phục của sĩ quan cảnh sát để thể hiện là trang phục biểu hiện uy quyền thế nào.

Thông tin xuất hiện ở giữa đoạn 3 “In more recent times, professional or administrative costume has been devised to distinguish the wearer and express personal or delegated authority; this purpose is seen clearly in the judge's robes and the police officer’s uniform.”

Question 7: The word “denotes” in line paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to_______.

A. disguises    B. describes     C. indicates    D. denigrates

Đáp án C

Theo ngữ cảnh của bài thì denote = indicate (chỉ rõ)

Question 8: Which of the following would most likely NOT be reflected in a person's costume, as it is defined in the passage?

A. Having a heart condition     B. Playing in a baseball game

C. Working in a hospital     D. Participating in a religious ceremony

Đáp án A

Theo bài đọc, điều ít có khả năng phản ánh trong trang phục là một người mắc bệnh tim hay không và trang phục chỉ phần nào thể hiện người đó là bệnh nhân hay không.

Exercise 6: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

   Most forms of property are concrete and tangible, such as houses, cars, furniture or anything else that is included in one’s possessions. Other forms of property can be intangible, and copyright deals with intangible forms of property. Copyright is a legal protection extended to authors of creative works, for example books magazine articles, maps, films, plays, television shows, software, paintings, photographs, music, choreography in dance and all other forms of intellectual or artistic property.

   Although the purpose of artistic property is usually public use and enjoyment, copyright establishes the ownership of the creator. When a person buys a copyrighted magazine, it belongs to this individual as a tangible object. However, the authors of the magazine articles own the research and the writing that went into creating the articles. The right to make and sell or give away copies of books or articles belongs to the authors, publishers, or other individuals or organizations that hold the copyright. To copy an entire book or a part of it, permission must be received from the copyright owner, who will most likely expect to be paid.

   Copyright law distinguishes between different types of intellectual property. Music may be played by anyone after it is published. However, if it is performed for profit, the performers need to pay a fee called a royalty. A similar principle applies to performances of songs and plays. On the other hand, names, ideas and book titles are excepted. Ideas do not become copyrighted property until they are published in a book a painting or a musical work. Almost all artistic work created before the 20th century is not copyrighted because it was created before the copyright law was passed.

   The two common ways of infringing upon the copyright are plagiarism and piracy. Plagiarizing the work of another person means passing it off as one’s own. The word plagiarism is derived from the Latin plaglarus, which means “abductor”. Piracy may be an act of one person, but, in many cases, it is a joint effort of several people who reproduce copyrighted material and sell it for profit without paying royalties to the creator. Technological innovations have made piracy easy and anyone can duplicate a motion picture on videotape a computer program, or a book. Video cassette recorders can be used by practically anyone to copy movies and television programs, and copying software has become almost as easy as copying a book. Large companies zealously monitor their copyrights for slogans, advertisements, and brand names, protected by a trademark

Question 1: What does the passage mainly discuss?

A. Legal rights of property owners     B. Legal ownership of creative work

C. Examples of copyright piracy     D. Copying creating work for profit

Đáp án B

Phân tích: Đọc lướt từ đầu đến cuối đoạn vãn bản và dựa chủ yếu vào các câu này, người đọc có thể nhận ra rằng đoạn văn này bản về vấn đề: quyển sở hữu pháp lý của các tác phẩm nghệ thuật sáng tạo. Vậy chọn đáp án B. Legal ownership of creative work: Sự sở hữu hợp pháp của các công trình sáng tạo.

Question 2: The word “principle” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to

A. crucial point     B. cardinal role     C. fundamental rule     D. formidable force

Đáp án C

Key word: paragraph 3, Principle (nguyên tắc, quy tẳc) = Fundamental rule.

Question 3: Which of the following properties is NOT mentioned as protected by copyright?

A. music and plays     B. paintings and maps

C. printed medium     D. scientific discoveries

Đáp án D

Giải thích: “Copyright is a legal protection extended to authors of creative works, for example, books, magazine articles, maps, films, plays, television shows, software, paintings, photographs, music, choreography in dance and all other forms of intellectual or artistic property” : Bản quyền là sự bảo vệ hợp pháp cấp cho các tác giả có công trình sáng tạo, vi dụ, sách, tạp chí, bài báo, bản đồ, phim, chương trình truyền hình, phần mềm, tranh vẽ, ảnh, âm nhạc, biên đạo nhảy, múa và tất cả các hình thức tài sàn tri thức hoặc nghệ thuật khác.

Question 4: It can be inferred from the passage that it is legal if __________

A. two songs, written by two different composers, have the same melody

B. two books, written by two different authors, have the same titles

C. two drawings, created by two different artists, have the same images

D. two plays, created by two different playwrights, have the same plot and characters

Đáp án B

Clue: “A similar principle applies to performances of songs and plays. On the other hand, names, ideas and book titles are excepted: Một nguyên tắc tương tự áp dụng đối với việc thể hiện các bài hát và vở kịch. Mặt khác, tên, ý tưởng và tiêu đề sách là ngoại lệ.

Phân tích: Từ clue ta có thể thấy nếu các tảc phẩm có thể có cùng tên, ý tưởng và tiêu đề. Do dó hai cuốn sách viết bới hai tác già khác nhau có cùng một tiêu đề vần hợp pháp. Vậy chọn đáp án B. two books, written by two different authors, have the same titles

Question 5: With which of the following statements is the author most likely to agree?

A. Teachers are not allowed to make copies of published materials for use by their students

B. Plays written in the 16th century cannot be performed in theaters without permission

C. Singers can publicly sing only the songs for which they wrote the music and the lyrics

D. It is illegal to make photographs when sightseeing or traveling

Đáp án A

Clue: “To copy an entire book or a part of it, permission must be received from the copyright owner, who will most likely expect to be paid”: Đế sao chép toàn bộ một cuốn sách hoặc một phần của nó thì phải nhận đirợc giấy sự cho phép của người sở hữu bản quyền và phải trả tiền bản quyền cho họ.

Question 6: The phrase “infringing upon” in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to _____

A. impinging upon     B. inducting for     C. violating     D. abhorring

Đáp án C

Key word: paragraph 4, infringing upon (xâm phạm) = violating.

Question 7: The purpose of copyright law is most comparable with the purpose of which of the following?

A. A law against theft     B. A law against smoking

C. A school policy     D. A household rule

Đáp án A

Clue: “The two common ways of infringing upon the copyright are plagiarism and piracy”: Hai phương thức xâm phạm bản quyền phổ biển là đạo và vi phạm quyền tác giả.

Phân tích: Piracy: vi phạm quyền tác giả được nhắc tới cùng với sao chép bản quyền. Piracy còn mang nghĩa là cướp, ăn cắp bản quyền. Do đó, mục đích của luật bản quyền được so sánh với mục đỉch của luật chống trộm cắp.

Question 8: According to the passage, copyright law is _______

A. meticulously observed     B. routinely ignored

C. frequently debated     D. zealously enforced

Đáp án B

Clue: “Privacy may be an act of one person, but many cases, it is a joint effort of several people who reproduce copyrighted materal sell it for profit without paying royalties to the creator. Technololgical innovations made privacy easy and anyone can duplicate a motion picture on videotape, a computer hiện các nhiệm vụ để họ có thê từng người tận hưởng program or a book. Video cassett recorders can be used by practically anyone to copy movies and television programs, and copying software has become almost as easy as copying a book.”

Exercise 7: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

   Cooperation is the common endeavor of two or more people to perform a task or reach a jointly cherished goal. Like competition and conflict, there are different forms of cooperation, based on group organization and attitudes.

   In the first form, known as primary cooperation, group and individual fuse. The group contains nearly all of each individual’s life. The rewards of the group’s work are shared with each member. There is an interlocking identity of individual, group and task performed. Means and goals become one, for cooperation itself is valued.

   While primary cooperation is most often characteristic of preliterate societies, secondary cooperation is characteristic of many modem societies. In secondary cooperation, individuals devote only part of their lives to the group. Cooperation itself is not a value. Most members of the group feel loyalty, but the welfare of the group is not the first consideration. Members perform tasks so that they can separately enjoy the fruits of their cooperation in the form of salary prestige, or power. Business offices and professional athletic teams are examples of secondary cooperation.

   In the third type called tertiary cooperation or accommodation, latent conflict underlies the shared work. The attitudes of the cooperating parties are purely opportunistic: the organization is loose and fragile. Accommodation involves common means to achieve antagonistic goals: it breaks down when the common means cease to aid each party in reaching its goals. This is not, strictly speaking cooperation at all, and hence the somewhat contradictory term antagonistic cooperation is sometimes used for this relationship.

Question 1: What is the author’s main purpose in the first paragraph of to passage?

A. To urge readers to cooperate more often

B. To offer a brief definition of cooperation

C. To explain how cooperation differs from competition and conflict

D. To show the importance of group organization and attitudes

Đáp án B

Mục đích chính của tác giả ở đoạn đầu tiên là nêu ra định nghĩa ngắn gọn của “cooperation”

Question 2: The word cherished in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to _______________

A. defined     B. agreed on     C. prized     D. set up

Đáp án C

cherisbed (yêu mến, yêu thương, yêu dấu) = prized (được đánh giá cao)

Question 3: Which of the following statements about primary cooperation is supported by information in the passage?

A. It is usually the first stage of cooperation achieved by a group of individuals attempting to cooperate

B. It is most commonly seen among people who have not yet developed reading and writing skills

C. It is an ideal that can never be achieved

D. It was confined to prehistoric times

Đáp án B

Clue: While primary cooperation is most often characteristic of preliterase societies...”: Trong khi hợp tác sơ đẳng thường chủ yếu là đặc tính của xã hội thuộc thời kỳ tiền văn tự... Xã hội thuộc thời kỳ tiền văn tự nghĩa là xã hội khi việc đọc viết viết chưa phổ biến. Có thể suy ra như sau “literate” là biết đọc, biết viết.

Thêm tiền tổ “pre” phía trước suy nghĩa là trước khi biết đọc biểt viết.

Question 4: According to the passage, why do people join groups that practice secondary cooperation?

A. To experience the satisfaction of cooperation

B. To associate with people who have similar backgrounds

C. To get rewards for themselves

D. To defeat a common enemy

Đáp án C

Clue: “Members perform tasks so that they can separately enjoy the fruits of their cooperation in the form of salary, prestige, or power”: Các thành viên thực hiện các nhiệm vụ để họ có thể từng người tận hưởng thành quả của sự hợp tác đó dưới dạng tiền lương. Sự uy tín hoặc ủy quyền.

Question 5: Which of the following is an example of the third form of cooperation as it is defined in the fourth paragraph?

A. Students form a study group so that all of them can improve their grades

B. Members of a farming community share work and the food that they grow

C. Two rival political parties temporarily work together to defeat a third party

D. A new business attempts to take customers away from an established company

Đáp án C

Clue: “The attitudes of the cooperating parties are purely opportunistic: the organization is loose and fragile. Accommodation involves common means to achieve antagonistic goals. This is not, strictly speaking, cooperation at all, and hence the somewhat contradictory term antagonistic cooperation is sometimes used for this relationship”: Thải độ của các bên hoàn toàn ỉà thái độ cơ cơ hội: tổ chức lòng lèo và mỏng manh. Sự điều tiết bao gồm những phương thức chung nhằm đạt được mục tiêu đối nghịch: Tổ chức sẽ tan rã khi phương thức chung này ngừng trợ giúp mỗi bên trong việc đạt được mục tiêu. Nói một cách khắt khe thì đây hoàn toàn không phải là hợp tác, và vì vậy thuật ngữ hợp tác đối nghịch có phần mâu thuẫn này vẫn thinh thoảng đirợc sử dụng để gọi mối quan hệ hợp tác này.

Question 6: Which of the following is NOT given as a name for the third type of cooperation?

A. Tertiary cooperation     B. Antagonistic cooperation

C. Accommodation     D. Latent conflict

Đáp án D

Clue: “In the third type, called tertiary cooperation or accommodation, latent conflict underlies the shared work... and hence the somewhat contradictory term antagonistic cooperation is sometimes used for this relationship”: Ở loại thứ ba, được gọi là hợp tác kiểu thứ ba hoặc hợp tác điều tiểt, tiềm tàng mâu thuẫn trong công việc chung. . . và vì vậy thuật ngữ hợp tác đối nghịch có phần mâu thuẫn này vẫn thỉnh thoảng được sử dụng để gọi mối quan hệ hợp tác này.

Question 7: The word “fragile” in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to

A. involuntary     B. poorly planned    C. inefficient     D. easily broken

Đáp án D

fragile (mỏng manh, dễ vỡ, yếu ớt) = easily broken

Exercise 8: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

   Most people can remember a phone number for up to thirty seconds. When this short amount of time elapses, however, the numbers are erased from the memory. How did the information get there in the first place? Information that makes its way to the short term memory (STM) does so via the sensory storage area. The brain has a filter which only allows stimuli that is of immediate interest to pass on to the STM, also known as the working memory.

   There is much debate about the capacity and duration of the short term memoiy. The most accepted theory comes from George A. Miller, a cognitive psychologist who suggested that humans can remember approximately seven chunks of information. A chunk is defined as a meaningful unit of information such as a word or name rather than just a letter or number. Modern theorists suggest that one can increase the capacity of the short term memory by chunking, or classifying similar information together. By organizing information, one can optimize the STM, and improve the chances of a memory being passed on to long term storage

   When making a conscious effort to memorize something, such as information for an exam many people engage in "rote rehearsal". By repeating something over and over again, one is able to keep a memory alive. Unfortunately, this type of memory maintenance only succeeds if there are no interruptions. As soon as a person stops rehearsing the information, it has the tendency to disappear. When a pen and paper are not handy people often attempt to remember a phone number by repeating it aloud. If the doorbell rings or the dog barks to come in before a person has the opportunity to make a phone call, he will likely forget the number instantly. Therefore rote rehearsal is not an efficient way to pass information from the short term to long term memory. A better way is to practice "elaborate rehearsal". This involves assigning semantic meaning to a piece of information so that it can be filed along with other pre-existing long term memories.

   Encoding information semantically also makes it more retrievable. Retrieving information can be done by recognition or recall. Humans can easily recall memories that are stored in the long term memory and used often- however, if a memory seems to be forgotten, it may eventually be retrieved by prompting. The more cues a person is given (such as pictures), the more likely a memory can be reừieved. This is why multiple choice tests are often used for subjects that require a lot of memorization.

Question 1: According to the passage, how do memories get transferred to the STM?

A. They revert from the long term memory.

B. They are filtered from the sensory storage area.

C. They get chunked when they enter the brain.

D. They enter via the nervous system. '

Đáp án B

Clue: “How did the information get there in the first place? Information that makes its way to the short term memory (STM) does so via the sensory storage area”: Làm thế nào để thông tin đến đó trong lần đầu? Thông tin sẽ tạo đường đến bộ nhớ tạm thời thông qua khu vực lưu trữ tri giác.

Question 2: All of the following are mentioned as places in which memories are stored EXCEPT the:

A. STM     B. long term memory    C. sensory storage area     D. maintenance area

Đáp án D

Clue: Unfortunately, this type of memory maintenance only succeeds if there are no interruptions. Thật không may, việc duy trì loại bộ nhớ này chi thành công nếu không có sự cản trở.

Question 3: Why does the author mention a dog’s bark?

A. To give an example of a type of memory

B. To provide a type of interruption

C. To prove that dogs have better memories than humans

D. To compare another sound that is loud like a doorbell

Đáp án B

Clue: “If the doorbell rings or the dog barks to come in before a person has the opportunity to make a phone call, he will likely forget the number instantly. ” Nếu cái chuông cửa hay tiếng chó sủa xuất hiện tước khi một người sắp đi gọi điện thoại thì anh ta sẽ gần như quên sổ điện thoại ngay lập tức.

Question 4: The word “elaborate” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to:

A. complex     B. efficient     C. pretty     D. regular

Đáp án A

Elaborate: cầu kì, phức tạp = Complex.

Question 5: Which of the following is NOT supported by the passage?

A. The working memory is the same as the short term memory.

B. A memory is kept alive through constant repetition,

C. Cues help people to recognize information.

D. Multiple choice exams are the most difficult.

Đáp án D

Clue: “The more cues a person is given (such as pictures), the more likely a memory can be retrieved. This is why multiple choice tests are often used for subjects that require a lot of memorization”; Càng nhiều gợi ý được cho (như tranh ảnh) thì càng nhiều khả năng trí nhớ được phục hồi.

Question 6: How do theorists believe a person can remember more information in a short time?

A. By organizing it     B. By repeating it

C. By giving it a name     D. By drawing it

Đáp án A

Clue: Modem theorists suggest that one can increase the capacity of the short term memory by chunking, or classifying similar information together. By organizing information, one can optimize the STM, and improve the chances of a memory being passed on to long term storage.”: Những nhà học thuyết đề nghị ỉà một người có thể tăng lưu trữ bộ nhớ trong thời gian ngắn bằng cách phân loại các thông tin giống nhau cùng nhau. Bằng cách sắp xếp, một người có thể tùy chình bộ nhớ trong thời gian ngắn và cải thiện cơ hội đế một bộ nhớ được chuyển đến bộ nhớ lâu dài.

Question 7: The author believes that rote rotation is:

A. the best way to remember something     B. more efficient than chunking

C. ineffective in the long run     D. an unnecessary interruption

Đáp án C

Clue: “Therefore, rote rehearsal is not an efficient way to pass information from the short term to long term memory” (Do đó, việc học bằng cách nhắc ỉại không phải là một cách hiệu quả để truyền thông tin từ bộ nhớ ngắn sang bộ nhớ lâu dài).

Question 8: The word “cues” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. Questions     B. Clues     C. Images     D. Tests

Đáp án B

Cue: Gợi ý = Clue.

Exercise 9: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

   The lack of printing regulations and the unenforceability of British copyright law in the American colonies made it possible for colonial printers occasionally to act as publishers. Although they rarely undertook major sj publishing project because it was difficult to sell books as cheaply as they could be imported from Europe printers 9 in Philadelphia did publish work that required only small amounts of capital, paper, and type. Broadsides could be published with minimal financial risk. Consisting of only one sheet of paper and requiring small amounts of type broadsides involved lower investments of capital than longer works. Furthermore, the broadside format lent itself to subjects of high, if temporary, interest, enabling them to meet with ready sale. If the broadside printer miscalculated, however, and produced a sheet that did not sell, it was not likely to be a major loss and the printer would know this immediately, There would be no agonizing wait with large amounts of capital tied up books gathering dust on the shelves, and creditors impatient for payment.

   In addition to broadsides, books and pamphlets, consisting mainly of political tracts, catechisms, primers, and chapbooks were relatively inexpensive to print and to buy. Chapbook were pamphlet-sized books, usually containing popular tales, ballads, poems, short plays, and jokes, small, both in formal and number of pages, they were generally bound simply, in boards (a form of cardboard) or merely stitched in paper wrappers (a sewn antecedent of modernday paperbacks). Pamphlets and chapbooks did not require fine paper or a great deal of type to produce they could thus be printed in large, cost-effective editions and sold cheaply.

   By far, the most appealing publishing investments were to be found in small books that had proven to be steady sellers, providing a reasonably reliable source of income for the publisher. They would not, by nature, be highly topical or political, as such publications would prove of fleeting interest. Almanacs, annual publications that contained information on astronomy and weather patterns arranged according to the days, week, and months of a given year, provided the perfect steady seller because their information pertained to the locale in which they would be used.

Question 1: Which aspect of colonial printing does the passage mainly discuss?

A. Laws governing the printing industry.    B. Competition among printers

C. Types of publications produced     D. Advances in printing technology

Đáp án C

Chỉ có đáp án C là hợp lí vì chủ đề này được đề cập xuyên suốt đoạn văn, các đáp án còn lại đều không thích hợp.

Question 2: According to the passage, why did colonial printers avoid major publishing projects?

A. Few colonial printers owned printing machinery that was large enough to handle major projects.

B. There was inadequate shipping available in the colonies.

C. Colonial printers could not sell their work for a competitive price.

D. Colonial printers did not have the skills necessary to undertake large publishing projects.

Đáp án C

Clue: “...they rarely undertook major publishing project because it was difficult to sell books as cheaply as they could be imported from Europe” :...họ hiếm khi nhận những dự án xuất bản lớn bởi sẽ rất khỏ đề bán được sách rẻ như khi nhập về từ Châu Âu.

Question 3: Broadsides could bs published with little risk to colonial printers because they

A. required a small financial investment and sold quickly

B. were in great demand in European markets

C. were more popular with colonists than chapbooks and pamphlets

D. generally dealt with topics of long-term interest to many colonists

Đáp án A

Clue: “broadsides involved lower investments of capital than longer works... enabling them to meet with ready sale” Chọn A. required a small financial investment and sold quickly; chỉ cần khoản đầu tư tài chỉnh nhỏ và bán rất nhanh.

Question 4: The word "they" refers to

A. chapbooks     B. tales     C. jokes     D. pages

Đáp án A

Clue: “Chapbooks were pamphlet-sized books..., they were generally bound simply” Sách bỏ túi là những cuôn sách có kích thước nhỏ..., chúng thường được gói bọc đơn giản.

Question 5: The word "appealing" is closest in meaning to

A. dependable     B. respectable     C. enduring     D. attractive

Đáp án D

Appealing (a) (thu hút, độc đáo) = attractive

Question 6: What were "steady sellers"?

A. Printers whose incomes were quite large

B. People who traveled from town to town selling Books and pamphlets

C. Investors who provided reliable financial Support for new printers

D. Publications whose sales were usually consistent from year to year

Đáp án D

Clue: “...steady sellers, providing a reasonably reliable source of income for the publisher” những ấn phẩm bán ổn định, chúng cung cấp một nguồn thu nhập hợp lí và đáng tin cậy cho các nhà xuất bản.

Question 7: All of the following are defined in the passage EXCEPT

A. "Broadsides"    B."catechisms"     C. "chapbooks"    D. " Almanacs"

Đáp án B

Clue:

   + “Consisting of only one sheet of paper and requiring small amounts of type, broadsides.. - Đáp án A.

   + “Chapbooks were pamphlet-sized books...” - Đáp án C.

   + “Almanacs, annual publications that contained information on astronomy and weather patterns...” - Đáp án D.

Như vậy chỉ có đáp án B không được định nghĩa trong bài.

Exercise 10: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

   Dodder is an unusual and unwanted plant that attacks other plants. Except for its flowers, the plant looks like spaghetti noodles. Its almost leafless, thread–like stems hang down atop other plants that dodder needs to stay alive. Dodder does not produce its own food. Instead, it steals it from other plants. It feeds by sucking juices from the plant it is wrapped around, often making its host very weak or even killing it. Dodder can find other plants by their smell. When a dodder seedling starts growing, it follows the scent of plants it prefers, like tomato plants, potato plants, or other farm crops.

   Unlike most plants that usually grow in the direction of light or warmth, a dodder plant will grow in the direction of, for example, tomato odor––if a tomato happens to be growing nearby. However, a young dodder plant must find a host plant quickly. If it cannot catch a whiff of a potential host within a few days, it will dry up and disappear— even if there is plenty of water around. Once it finds a host, the young dodder plant will attach itself to it and start growing faster. At that point, the dodder plant will drop its root.

   Dodder is thus a difficult weed to manage and a real headache for farmers. When it does get out of hand, dodder can greatly reduce a farmer’s harvest or even destroy crops completely. Before sowing their produce, farmers in warm parts of the world often check to make sure no unwanted dodder seeds have intermingled with their crop seeds. This is a good way to stop dodder plants from sneaking their way into a crop field.

Question 1: What is the main topic of the passage?

A. A new variety of farm crop     B. Plants that are harmful to humans

C. Recent improvements in farming methods     D. The special abilities of a dangerous plant

Đáp án D

Giải thích: Xuyên suốt bài, tác giả trình bày về đặc điểm sống đặc biệt của loài cây tơ hồng

Question 2: Why does the author mention spaghetti?

A. To analyze the content of some food

B. To describe the shape of a dodder plant

C. To explain where the dodder plant came from

D. To argue that dodder plants can be used to make food

Đáp án B

Giải thích: Thông tin nằm ở: “Except for its flowers, the plant looks like spaghetti noodles.”: Trừ hoa của nó, cây trông giống như sợi mì ống.

Question 3: The word it refers to _________.

A. Host     B. Food     C. plant     D. dodder

Đáp án B

Giải thích: Thông tin nằm ở: “Dodder does not produce its own food. Instead, it steals it from other plants.”: Cây tơ hồng không sản xuất thứ ăn của riêng mình. Thay vào đó, nó trộm thức ăn từ những cây khác.

Question 4: What causes dodder to grow in a particular direction?

A. Light     B. Water     C. Odor     D. Temperature

Đáp án C

Thông tin nằm ở: “Unlike most plants that usually grow in the direction of light or warmth, a dodder plant will grow in the direction of, for example, tomato odor”: Không giống như hầu hết các cây thường phát triển theo hướng ánh sáng hoặc hơi ấm, một cây tơ hồng sẽ phát triển theo hướng, ví dụ như mùi cà chua

Question 5: The expression catch a whiff is closest in meaning to

A. Eat the seeds    B. find the location     C. notice the smell     D. determine the size

Đáp án C

Thông tin nằm ở: “f it cannot catch a whiff of a potential host within a few days”: Nếu nó không thể bắt mùi của một cây chủ tiềm năng trong vòng vài ngày

Question 6: What will happen if a dodder plant starts growing where there are no other plants around?

A. It will soon die     B. It will grow deeper roots.

C. It will attract other plants     D. It will cover the entire area of soil

Đáp án A

Thông tin nằm ở: “If it cannot catch a whiff of a potential host within a few days, it will dry up and disappear”: Nếu nó không thể bắt mùi của một cây chủ tiềm năng trong vòng vài ngày, nó sẽ khô và biến mất.

Question 7: The expression get out of hand is closest in meaning to

A. Dry up and die     B. change its color

C. become hard to find     D. grow uncontrollably

Đáp án D

Thông tin nằm ở: “When it does get out of hand, dodder can greatly reduce a farmer’s harvest or even destroy crops completely.”: Khi nó nằm ngoài tầm kiểm soát, cây tơ hồng có thể làm giảm đáng kể thu hoạch của nông dân hoặc thậm chí phá hoại cây trồng hoàn toàn.

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