300 câu trắc nghiệm Đọc hiểu Tiếng Anh có đáp án cực hay (nâng cao - Phần 4)

300 câu trắc nghiệm Đọc hiểu Tiếng Anh có đáp án cực hay (nâng cao - Phần 4)

Exercise 1: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

   Some animal behaviorists argue that certain animals can remember past events, anticipate future ones, make plans and choices, and coordinate activities within a group. These scientists, however, are cautious about the extent to which animals can be credited with conscious processing. Explanations of animal behavior that leave out any sort of consciousness at all and ascribe actions entirely to instinct leave many questions unanswered. One example of such unexplained behavior: Honeybees communicate the sources of nectar to one another by doing a dance in a figure-eight pattern. The orientation of the dance conveys the position of the food relative to the sun's position in the sky, and the speed of the dance tells how far the food source is from the hive. Most researchers assume that the ability to perform and encode the dance is innate and shows no special intelligence. But in one study, when experimenters kept changing the site of the food source, each time moving the food 25 percent farther from the previous site, foraging honeybees began to anticipate where the food source would appear next. When the researchers arrived at the new location, they would find the bees circling the spot, waiting for their food. No one has yet explained how bees, whose brains weigh four ten-thousandths of an ounce, could have inferred the location of the new site. Other behaviors that may indicate some cognition include tool use. Many animals, like the otter who uses a stone to crack mussel shells, are capable of using objects in the natural environment as rudimentary tools. One researcher has found that mother chimpanzees occasionally show their young how to use tools to open hard nuts. In one study, chimpanzees compared two pairs of food wells containing chocolate chips. One pair might contain, say, five chips and three chips, the other our chips and three chips. Allowed to choose which pair they wanted, the chimpanzees almost always chose the one with the higher total, showing some sort of summing ability. Other chimpanzees have learned to use numerals to label quantities of items and do simple sums.

Question 1: What does the passage mainly discuss?

A. Observations that suggest consciousness in animal behavior.

B. The use of food in studies of animal behavior.

C. The role of instinct in animal behavior.

D. Differences between the behavior of animals in their natural environments and in laboratory experiments.

Đáp án A

Giải thích: Đoạn văn chủ yếu đề cập đến những quan sát mà từ đó cho thấy ý thức trong hành vi cảu động vật. Thông tin nằm ở:

“Some animal behaviorists argue that certain animals can remember past events,”

“Explanations of animal behavior that leave out any sort of consciousness at all”

“Other behaviors that may indicate some cognition include tool use. Many animals, like the otter who uses a stone to crack mussel shells, are capable of using objects in the natural environment as rudimentary tools.”

Question 2: Which of the following is NOT discussed as an ability animals are thought to have?

A. Communicating emotions     B. Remembering past experiences

C. Selecting among choices     D. Anticipating events to come

Đáp án A

Thông tin nằm ở: “Some animal behaviorists argue that certain animals can remember past events, anticipate future ones, make plans and choices, and coordinate activities within a group.”

Question 3: What did researchers discover in the study of honeybees discussed in paragraph 2?

A. Bees are able to travel at greater speeds than scientists thought.

B. The bees were able to determine in advance where scientists would place their food.

C. Changing the location of food caused bees to decrease their dance activity.

D. The bees could travel 25% farther than scientists expected.

Đáp án D

Giải thích: Thông tin nằm ở: “But in one study, when experimenters kept changing the site of the food source, each time moving the food 25 percent farther from the previous site”

Question 4: It can be inferred from the passage that brain size is assumed to ___________.

A. be an indicator of cognitive ability    B. be related to food consumption

C. correspond to levels of activity     D. vary among individuals within a species

Đáp án A

Giải thích: Thông tin nằm ở: “No one has yet explained how bees, whose brains weigh four ten-thousandths of an ounce, could have inferred the location of the new site.”

Question 5: Why are otters and mussel shells included in the discussion in paragraph 3?

A. To provide that certain species demonstrate greater ability in tool use than other species.

B. To provide an example of tool use among animals.

C. To show that animals are very good at using objects in their habitat.

D. To provide an example of the use of weapons among animals.

Đáp án B

Giải thích: Thông tin nằm ở: “Other behaviors that may indicate some cognition include tool use.”

Question 6: The word “rudimentary” is closest in meaning to ___________.

A. technical     B. basic     C. superior     D. original

Đáp án B

Giải thích: rudimentary (adj) cơ bản = basic (adj) cơ bản, nền tảng

Question 7: Scientists concluded from the experiment with chimpanzees and chocolate chips that chimpanzees __________.

A. prefer to work in pairs or groups

B. have difficulty selecting when given choices

C. lack abilities that other primates have

D. exhibit behavior that indicates certain mathematical abilities

Đáp án D

Giải thích: Thông tin nằm ở: “Allowed to choose which pair they wanted, the chimpanzees almost always chose the one with the higher total, showing some sort of summing ability. Other chimpanzees have learned to use numerals to label quantities of items and do simple sums.”

Exercise 2: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

   In the very distant geological past, all animals were aquatic. The very first vertebrates or animals with backbones, of which we have any fossil record, lived in water. These vertebrates, the fish, were adapted to underwater living. Their streamlined bodies were covered with scales to reduce surface friction: they had muscular tails so that they could swim swiftly in such a dense medium as water; and they were endowed with gills for breathing underwater. Descendants of fish-type ancestors crossed the seashore barrier and accommodated themselves to life on land. As amphibians, they possessed limbs instead of fins and lungs instead of gills. But they never became completely free of the bonds that tied them to the water; even today many amphibians return to the water to lay their eggs. Millions of years after the first clumsy amphibians crawled over the land, newer types of land dwellers appeared, these animals give rise to the present-day reptiles and mammals. They were completely converted for land dwelling, with bodies and biological activities far different from those of fish. With these special adaptations, mammals have been able to colonize the woods and meadows, the deserts and high mountains, often far removed from the sea.

Question 1: Of the animals with backbones, the first to appear were ______

A. fish     B. amphibians     C. birds     D. mammals

Đáp án A

Giải thích: “The very first vertebrates or animals with backbones, of which we have any fossil record, lived in water. These vertebrates, the fish, were adapted to underwater living.”

Question 2: Fish are suited to underwater life because of their ______

A. Gills     B. All of the answers     C. Streamlines shapes     D. Scales

Đáp án B

Giải thích: “Their streamlined bodies were covered with scales to reduce surface friction: they had muscular tails so that they could swim swiftly in such a dense medium as water; and they were endowed with gills for breathing underwater.”

Question 3: The passage suggests that the first amphibians used their limbs to……..

A. jump     B. run     C. swim     D. crawl

Đáp án D

Giải thích: “Millions of years after the first clumsy amphibians crawled over the land, ....”

Question 4: The word “descendants” is closest in meaning to _____.

A. Grandchildren     B. Ancestors    C. Descenders     D. Off spring

Đáp án D

Giải thích: descendants (n) thế hệ sau, con cháu

Question 5: An example of an amphibian’s incomplete adaptation to land life is…….

A. need to keep its skin wet     B. return to water to lay eggs

C. inability to breathe air.     D. Scales-covered skin

Đáp án B

Giải thích: Thông tin nằm ở: “But they never became completely free of the bonds that tied them to the water; even today many amphibians return to the water to lay their eggs.”

Question 6: Animals found desert living possible only _____

A. when they were fully adapted to land

B. after they could walk on two feet

C. when they became amphibious

D. if they migrated to sea periodically

Đáp án A

Giải thích: Thông tin nằm ở: “They were completely converted for land dwelling, with bodies and biological activities far different from those of fish. With these special adaptations, mammals have been able to colonize the woods and meadows, the deserts ....”

Question 7: The seashore was a barrier for descendants of fish-type because………

A. crossing it required bodily changes.

B. every attempt to cross it ended in death.

C. the land once rose much higher above the sea.

D. once they crossed, there was no return.

Đáp án A

Giải thích: Thông tin nằm ở: “These vertebrates, the fish, were adapted to underwater living. Their streamlined bodies were covered with scales to reduce surface friction: they had muscular tails so that they could swim swiftly in such a dense medium as water; and they were endowed with gills for breathing underwater. Descendants of fish-type ancestors crossed the seashore barrier and accommodated themselves to life on land.”

Question 8: The adaptation process described in the article was completed……

A. By the receding of the sea

B. Through biological changes

C. Over millions of years and Through biological changes

D. Over millions of years

Đáp án C

Giải thích: Quá trình thích ứng hình thành qua thời gian dài và thông qua những biến đổi sinh học của cơ thể để thích ứng. Thông tin nằm ở: “Millions of years after the first clumsy amphibians crawled over the land, newer types of land dwellers appeared, these animals give rise to the present-day reptiles and mammals.”

“These vertebrates, the fish, were adapted to underwater living. Their streamlined bodies were covered with scales to reduce surface friction: ...”

Exercise 3: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

   Telecommuting is some form of computer communication between employees’ homes and offices. For employees whose job involve sitting at a terminal or word processor entering data or typing reports, the location of the computer is of no consequence. If the machine can communicate over telephone lines, when the work is completed, employees can dial the office computer and transmit the material to their employers. A recent survey in USA Today estimates that there are approximately 8,7 million telecommuters. But although the numbers are rising annually, the trend does not appear to be as significant as predicted when Business Week published “The Portable Executive” as its cover story a few years ago. Why hasn’t telecommuting become more popular?

   Clearly, change simply takes time. But in addition, there has been active resistance on the part of many managers. These executives claim that supervising the telecommuters in a large work force scattered across the country would be too difficult, or, at least, systems for managing them are not yet developed, thereby complicating the manager’s responsibilities.

   It is also true that employees who are given the option of telecommuting are reluctant to accept the opportunity. Most people feel that they need regular interaction with a group, and many are concerned that they will not have the same consideration for advancement if they are not more visible in the office setting. Some people feel that even when a space in their homes is set aside as a work area, they never really get away from the office.

Question 1: With which of the following topics is the passage primarily concerned?

A. An overview of telecommuting     B. The failure of telecommuting

C. The advantages of telecommuting     D. A definition of telecommuting

Đáp án A

Đoạn văn nêu lên định nghĩa về làm việc từ xa, thuận lợi, bất lợi của làm việc từ xa ⇒ Chủ đề của đoạn văn là Tổng quan về làm việc từ xa.

Question 2: How many Americans are involved in telecommuting?

A. More than predicted in Business Week     B. More than 8 million

C. Fewer than last year     D. Fewer than estimated in USA Today

Đáp án B

Thông tin ở câu: “A recent survey in USA Today estimates that there are approximately 8,7 million telecommuters.” (Một cuộc khảo sát gần đây ở USA Today ước tính có khoảng 8,7 triệu người làm việc từ xa.)

Question 3: The phrase “of no consequence” means ________.

A. of no use     B. irrelevant     C. of no good     D. unimportant

Đáp án D

of no consequence : không quan trọng = unimportant

Question 4: The author mentions all of the following as concerns of telecommuting EXCEPT ________.

A. the opportunities for advancement     B. the different system of supervision

C. the lack of interaction with a group     D. the work place is in the home

Đáp án B

Thông tin ở đoạn : “Most people feel that they need regular interaction with a group...” (Hầu hết mọi người cảm thấy rằng họ cần sự tương tác thường xuyên với một nhóm...) ⇒ Đáp án C “...many are concerned that they will not have the same consideration for advancement if they are not more visible in the office setting.” (...nhiều người lo ngại rằng họ sẽ không có sự cân nhắc tương tự cho việc thăng chức nếu họ không xuất hiện nhiều hơn trong bối cảnh văn phòng.) ⇒ Đáp án A. những cơ hội để thăng chức được nhắc đến

“Some people feel that even when a space in their homes is set aside as a work area, they never really get away from the office.” (Một số người cảm thấy rằng ngay cả khi một không gian trong nhà của họ được dành riêng như là một khu vực làm việc, họ vẫn không bao giờ thực sự rời khỏi văn phòng.)

⇒ Đáp án D. nơi làm việc là ở nhà được nhắc đến.

⇒ Chỉ có đáp án B không được nhắc đến như một mối quan tâm của làm việc từ xa.

Question 5: The word “them” in the second paragraph refers to ________.

A. telecommuters     B. systems     C. executives     D. responsibilities

Đáp án A

Thông tin ở câu: “These executives claim that supervising the telecommuters in a large work force scattered across the country would be too difficult, or, at least, systems for managing them are not yet developed, thereby complicating the manager’s responsibilities.” (Các giám đốc điều hành cho rằng giám sát những người làm việc từ xa trong một lực lượng lao động lớn rải rác khắp đất nước sẽ là quá khó khăn, hoặc, ít nhất, các hệ thống để quản lý họ chưa được phát triển, do đó khiến trách nhiệm của người quản lý trở nên phức tạp.)

Question 6: The reason why telecommuting has not become popular is that the employees ________.

A. need regular interaction with their families.

B. are worried about the promotion if they are not seen at the office.

C. feel that a work area in their home is away from the office.

D. are ignorant of telecommuting.

Đáp án B

Thông tin ở câu: “...many are concerned that they will not have the same consideration for advancement if they are not more visible in the office setting.” (...nhiều người lo ngại rằng họ sẽ không có sự cân nhắc tương tự cho việc thăng chức nếu họ không xuất hiện nhiều hơn trong bối cảnh văn phòng.)

Question 7: The word “reluctant” in line 13 can best be replaced by ________.

A. opposite     B. willing     C. hesitant     D. typical

Đáp án C

reluctant (adj): lưỡng lự ≈ hesitant (adj): do dự

Exercise 4: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

   In my experience, freshmen today are different from those I knew when I started as a counselor and professor 25 years ago. College has always been demanding both academically and socially. But students now are less mature and often not ready for the responsibility of being in college.

   It is really too easy to point the finger at parents who protect their children from life’s obstacle. Parents, who handle every difficulty and every other responsibility for their children writing admission essays to picking college courses, certainly may contribute to their children’s lack of coping strategies. But we can look even more broadly to the social trends of today.

   How many people do you know who are on medication to prevent anxiety or depression? The number of students who arrive at college already medicated for unwanted emotions has increased dramatically in the past 10 years. We, as a society, don’t want to “feel” anything unpleasant and we certainly don’t want our children to “suffer”.

   The resulting problem is that by not experiencing negative emotions, one does not learn the necessary skills to tolerate and negotiate adversity. As a psychologist, I am well aware of the fact that some individuals suffer from depression and anxiety and can benefit from treatment, but I question the growing number of medicated adolescents today.

   Our world is more stressful in general because of the current economic and political realities, but I don’t believe that the college experience itself is more intense today than that of the past 10 years. What I do think is that many students are often not prepared to be young “adults” with all the responsibilities of life.

   What does this mean for college faculty and staff? We are required to assist in the basic parenting of these students – the student who complains that the professor didn’t remind her of the due date for an assignment that was clearly listed on the syllabus and the student who cheats on an assignment in spite of careful instructions about plagiarism.

   As college professors, we have to explain what it means to be an independent college student before we can even begin to teach. As parents and teachers we should expect young people to meet challenges. To encourage them in this direction, we have to step back and let them fail and pick themselves up and move forward. This approach needs to begin at an early age so that college can actually be a passage to independent adulthood.

Question 1: According to the writer, students today are different from those she knew in that they are ____________.

A. too ready for college     B. not as mature

C. not so academic     D. responsible for their work

Đáp án B

Thông tin ở câu: "But students now are less mature and often not ready for the responsibility of being in college." (Nhưng bây giờ sinh viên ít chín chắn hơn và thường không sẵn sàng để có trách nhiệm cho việc học đại học.)

Question 2: The word “handle” in parapgraph 2 mostly means ____________.

A. deal with     B. gain benefits from     C. lend a hand to     D. point at

Đáp án A

(to) handle: xử lí ≈ (to) deal with

Question 3: According to the writer, students’ difficulties to cope with college life are partly due to ____________.

A. the absence of parents’ protection     B. the lack of parental support

C. the over-parenting from parents     D. the lack of financial support

Đáp án C

Thông tin ở câu: “It is really too easy to point the finger at parents who protect their children from life’s obstacle. Parents, who handle every difficulty and every other responsibility for their children writing admission essays to picking college courses, certainly may contribute to their children’s lack of coping strategies.” (Quá dễ để chỉ trích các bậc cha mẹ, những người bao bọc con mình khỏi tất cả trở ngại của cuộc sống. Các bậc cha mẹ, những người xử lý mọi khó khăn và mọi trách nhiệm khác cho con của họ từ viết bài tiểu luận để nộp đến chọn các khóa học đại học, chắc chắn có thể đã góp phần làm cho trẻ thiếu các chiến lược đối phó với khó khăn.)

Question 4: Which of the following is NOT TRUE according to the passage?

A. College faculty and staff are required to help in the parenting of problematic students.

B. The college experience itself is more intense today than that of the past 10 years.

C. Our world is more stressful because of the current economic and political situation.

D. Our society certainly doesn’t want our children to experience unpleasant things.

Đáp án B

Thông tin ở câu: “...but I don’t believe that the college experience itself is more intense today than that of the past 10 years.” (... nhưng tôi không tin rằng ngày nay trải nghiệm ở trường đại học căng thẳng hơn 10 năm trước.) ⇒ Đáp án B sai.

Question 5: Students who are not well – prepared to be young “adults” with all the responsibilities of life will need ______.

A. to be assigned more housework from adults

B. to be given more social responsibilities

C. to be encouraged to meet challenges

D. daily coaching from their teachers

Đáp án C

Thông tin ở câu: “As parents and teachers we should expect young people to meet challenges.” (Là cha mẹ và giáo viên, chúng ta nên mong đợi những người trẻ tuổi gặp phải những thách thức.)

Question 6: According to the writer, failure in life and less support from parents will ______.

A. help students to learn to stand on their own feet

B. allow students to learn the first lesson in their lives

C. defeat students from the very beginning

D. discourage students and let them down forever

Đáp án A

Thông tin ở câu: “This approach needs to begin at an early age so that college can actually be a passage to independent adulthood.” (Cách tiếp cận này cần phải bắt đầu từ khi còn rất nhỏ để môi trường đại học có thể thực sự là một sự chuyển tiếp sang tuổi trưởng thành độc lập.)

Question 7: What is probably the writer’s attitude in the passage?

A. Praising     B. Indifferent     C. Humorous     D. Critial

Đáp án D

Trong bài viết này, tác giả chỉ trích các bậc cha mẹ quá bảo bọc con mình, khiến chúng thiếu tinh thần độc lập và không thể tự giải quyết được những trở ngại trong cuộc sống.

Exercise 5: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

   We get great pleasure from reading. The more advanced a man is, the greater delight he will find in reading. The ordinary man may think that subjects like philosophy or science are very difficult and that if philosophers and scientists read these subjects, it is not for pleasure. But this is not true. The mathematician finds the same pleasure in his mathematics as the school boy in an adventure story. For both, it is a play of the imagination, a mental recreation and exercise. The pleasure derived from this activity is common to all kinds of reading. But different types of books give us different types of pleasure. First in order of popularity is novel-reading. Novels contain pictures of imaginary people in imaginary situations, and give us an opportunity of escaping into a new world very much like our world and yet different from it. Here we seem to live a new life, and the experience of this new life gives us a thrill of pleasure. Next in order of popularity are travel books, biographies and memoirs. These tell us tales of places we have not seen and of great men in whom we are interested. Some of these books are as wonderful as novels, and they have an added value that they are true. Such books give us knowledge, and we also find immense pleasure in knowing details of lands we have not seen and of great men we have only heard of. Reading is one of the greatest enjoyments of life. To book-lovers, nothing is more fascinating than a favorite book. And, the ordinary educated man who is interested and absorbed in his daily occupation wants to occasionally escape from his drudgery into the wonderland of books for recreation and refreshment.

Question 1: What does the passage mainly discuss?

A. Different types of books

B. Different kinds of reading

C. Reading as an exercise for the brain

D. Reading as a pleasurable activity

Đáp án D

Thông tin: We get great pleasure from reading. The more advanced a man is, the greater delight he will find in reading.

Question 2: According to paragraph 1, which of the following is NOT true?

A. Ordinary people may think that philosophy and science are difficult.

B. Reading about mathematics is mentally entertaining for a mathematician.

C. Philosophers and scientists do not read for pleasure.

D. A more advanced person takes greater pleasure in reading.

Đáp án C

The ordinary man may think that subjects like philosophy or science are very difficult and that if philosophers and scientists read these subjects, it is not for pleasure. But this is not true.

Tạm dịch: Người bình thường có thể nghĩ rằng các chủ đề như triết học hoặc khoa học là khó khăn và với các triết gia và các nhà khoa học, đọc những sách này không phải là để vui. Nhưng điều này không đúng.

Question 3: The word “derived” in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to ______.

A. differed     B. established     C. bought     D. obtained

Đáp án D

obtained: thu được, đạt được ⇒ derived = obtained

Question 4: The word “it” in paragraph 2 refers to ______.

A. a new life     B. our world     C. an opportunity     D. a thrill of pleasure

Đáp án B

Thông tin: Novels contain pictures of imaginary people in imaginary situations, and give us an opportunity of escaping into a new world very much like our world and yet different from it.

Tạm dịch: Tiểu thuyết là những bức tranh của những người tưởng tượng trong những tình huống tưởng tượng, và cho chúng ta một cơ hội để thoát vào một thế giới mới giống như thế giới của chúng ta và những nơi khác thế giới của chúng ta.

Question 5: The word “immense” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to ______.

A. great     B. limited     C. personal     D. controlled

Đáp án A

Giải thích: immense: rộng lớn, rất tốt = great: tốt, tuyệt vời

Question 6: According to the passage, travel books, biographies and memoirs ______.

A. are wonderful novels     B. tell stories of well-known places

C. are less popular than novels     D. are more valuable than novels

Đáp án C

Thông tin: First in order of popularity is novel-reading.... Next in order of popularity are travel books, biographies and memoirs.

Tạm dịch: Phổ biến nhất là đọc tiểu thuyết... Phổ biến tiếp theo là sách du lịch, tiểu sử và hồi ký.

Question 7: According to paragraph 4, which of the following is the most fascinating to booklovers?

A. A daily occupation

B. An ordinary educated man

C. The wonderland

D. A favorite book

Đáp án D

Thông tin: To book-lovers, nothing is more fascinating than a favorite book

Tạm dịch: Với người yêu sách, không có gì hấp dẫn hơn một cuốn sách yêu thích

Exercise 6: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

   Since water is the basis of life, composing the greater part of the tissues of all living things, the crucial problem of desert animals is to survive in a world where sources of flowing water are rare. And since man’s inexorable necessity is to absorb large quantities of water at frequent intervals, he can scarcely comprehend that many creatures of the desert pass their entire lives without a single drop.

   Uncompromising as it is, the desert has not eliminated life but only those forms unable to withstand its desiccating effects. No moist- skinned, water-loving animals can exist there. Few large animals are found. The giants of the North American desert are the deer, the coyote, and the bobcat. Since desert country is open, it holds more swift-footed running and leaping creatures than the tangled forest. Its population is largely nocturnal, silent, filled with reticence, and ruled by stealth. Yet they are not emaciated.

   Having adapted to their austere environment, they are as healthy as animals anywhere else in the word. The secret of their adjustment lies in the combination of behavior and physiology. None could survive if, like mad dogs and Englishmen, they went out in the midday sun; many would die in a matter of minutes. So most of them pass the burning hours asleep in cool, humid burrows underneath the ground, emerging to hunt only by night. The surface of the sun-baked desert averages around 150 degrees, but 18 inches down the temperature is only 60 degrees.

Question 1: The author mentions all the following as examples of the behavior of desert animals EXCEPT

A. they are watchful and quiet     B. they sleep during the day

C. they dig home underground     D. they are noisy and aggressive

Đáp án D

Thông tin:

- Its population is largely nocturnal, silent, filled with reticence, and ruled by stealth.

- So most of them pass the burning hours asleep in cool, humid burrows underneath the ground

Chỉ có đáp án D không chính xác

Question 2: We can infer from the passage that

A. healthy animals live longer lives     B. living things adjust to their environment

C. desert life is colorful and diverse     D. water is the basis of desert life

Đáp án B

Thông tin: Having adapted to their austere environment, they are as healthy as animals anywhere else in the word. The secret of their adjustment lies in the combination of behavior and physiology.

Question 3: According to the passage, creatures in the desert

A. are smaller and fleeter than forest animals

B. are more active during the day than those in the tangled forest

C. live in an accommodating environment

D. are not as healthy as those anywhere else in the world

Đáp án A

Thông tin:

- Few large animals are found.

- Since desert country is open, it holds more swift-footed running and leaping creatures than the tangled forest.

Question 4: The phrase “those forms” in the passage refers to all of the following EXCEPT

A. moist-skinned animals     B. many large animals

C. water-loving animals     D. the coyote and the bobcat

Đáp án A

Thông tin: No moist- skinned, water-loving animals can exist there. Few large animals are found. The giants of the North American desert are the deer, the coyote, and the bobcat.

Question 5: The word “them” means

A. animals     B. minutes     C. people     D. water

Đáp án A

Từ “them” chỉ các loài động vật sống ở sa mạc

Question 6: The word “emaciated” in the passage mostly means

A. wild     B. unmanageable     C. cunning     D. unhealthy

Đáp án D

Giải thích: "emaciate": gầy, không khoẻ mạnh

Question 7: Man can hardly understand why many animals live their whole life in the desert, as

A. water is an essential part of his existence

B. very few large animals are found in the desert

C. sources of flowing water are rare in a desert

D. water composes the greater part of the tissues of living things

Đáp án A

Thông tin: Since water is the basis of life […]And since man’s inexorable necessity is to absorb large quantities of water at frequent intervals, he can scarcely comprehend that many creatures of the desert pass their entire lives without a single drop.

Question 8: The title for this passage could be

A. “Man’s Life in a Desert Environment”     B. “Desert Plants”

C. “Animal Life in a Desert Environment”     D. “Life Underground”

Đáp án C

Giải thích: Tiêu đề cho đoạn này có thể là

A. "Cuộc sống của con người trong môi trường sa mạc"

B. “Thực vật ở sa mạc”

C. "Cuộc sống của động vật trong môi trường sa mạc"

D. "Cuộc sống dưới lòng đất"

Exercise 7: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

   Learning means acquiring knowledge or developing the ability to perform new behaviors. It is common to think of learning as something that takes place in school, but much of human learning occurs outside the classroom, and people continue to learn throughout their lives.

   Even before they enter school, young children learn to walk, to talk, and to use their hands to manipulate toys, food, and other objects. They use all of their senses to learn about the sights, sounds, tastes, and smells in their environments. They learn how to interact with their parents, siblings, friends, and other people important to their world. When they enter school, children learn basic academic subjects such as reading, writing, and mathematics. They also continue to learn a great deal outside the classroom. They learn which behaviors are likely to be rewarded and which are likely to be punished. They learn social skills for interacting with other children. After they finish school, people must learn to adapt to the many major changes that affect their lives, such as getting married, raising children, and finding and keeping a job. Because learning continues throughout our lives and affects almost everything we do, the study of learning is important in many different fields. Teachers need to understand the best ways to educate children. Psychologists, social workers, criminologists, and other human-service workers need to understand how certain experiences change people’s behaviors. Employers, politicians, and advertisers make use of the principles of learning to influence the behavior of workers, voters, and consumers.

   Learning is closely related to memory, which is the storage of information in the brain. Psychologists who study memory are interested in how the brain stores knowledge, where this storage takes place, and how the brain later retrieves knowledge when we need it. In contrast, psychologists who study learning are more interested in behavior and how behavior changes as a result of a person’s experiences.

   There are many forms of learning, ranging from simple to complex. Simple forms of learning involve a single stimulus. A stimulus is anything perceptible to the senses, such as a sight, sound, smell, touch, or taste. In a form of learning known as classical conditioning, people learn to associate two stimuli that occur in sequence, such as lightning followed by thunder. In operant conditioning, people learn by forming an association between a behavior and its consequences (reward or punishment). People and animals can also learn by observation - that is, by watching others perform behaviors. More complex forms of learning include learning languages, concepts, and motor skills.

Question 1: Getting married, raising children, and finding and keeping a job are mentioned in paragraph 2 as examples of ______.

A. the situations in which people cannot teach themselves

B. the ways people’s lives are influenced by education

C. the changes to which people have to orient themselves

D. the areas of learning which affect people’s lives

Đáp án C

Thông tin: After they finish school, people must learn to adapt to the many major changes that affect their lives, such as getting married, raising children, and finding and keeping a job.

Question 2: According to the passage, which of the following is learning in broad view comprised of?

A. Acquisition of social and behavioural skills

B. Knowledge acquisition outside the classroom

C. Acquisition of academic knowledge

D. Knowledge acquisition and ability development

Đáp án D

Thông tin: Learning means acquiring knowledge or developing the ability to perform new behaviors.

Question 3: According to the passage, what are children NOT usually taught outside the classroom?

A. literacy and calculation     B. right from wrong

C. life skills     D. interpersonal communication

Đáp án A

Thông tin: When they enter school, children learn basic academic subjects such as reading, writing, and mathematics.

Question 4: The passage mainly discusses ______.

A. practical examples of learning inside the classroom

B. simple forms of learning

C. application of learning principles to formal education

D. general principles of learning

Đáp án D

Giải thích: Đoạn văn chủ yếu thảo luận ______.

A. các ví dụ thực tế của việc học bên trong lớp học

B. các hình thức học đơn giản

C. áp dụng nguyên tắc học tập vào giáo dục chính quy

D. các nguyên tắc chung về học tập

Question 5: It can be inferred from the passage that social workers, employers, and politicians concern themselves with the study of learning because they need to ______.

A. make the objects of their interest more aware of the importance of learning

B. understand how a stimulus relates to the senses of the objects of their interest

C. thoroughly understand the behaviours of the objects of their interest

D. change the behaviours of the objects of their interest towards learning

Đáp án C

Thông tin: Psychologists, social workers, criminologists, and other human-service workers need to understand how certain experiences change people’s behaviors.

Question 6: According to the passage, the study of learning is important in many fields due to ______.

A. the need for certain experiences in various areas

B. the exploration of the best teaching methods

C. the influence of various behaviours in the learning process

D. the great influence of the on-going learning process

Đáp án D

Thông tin: Because learning continues throughout our lives and affects almost everything we do, the study of learning is important in many different fields.

Question 7: The word “retrieves” in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to _______.

A. recovers     B. creates     C. generates     D. gains

Đáp án A

Giải thích: "retrieve" = recover: lấy lại, phục hồi

Exercise 8: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

   Animals have an intuitive awareness of quantities. They know without analysis the difference between a number of objects and a smaller number. In his book “ The natural History of Selboure ” (1786 ) , the naturalist Gilbert White tells how he surreptitiously removed one egg a day from a plover’s nest , and how the mother laid another egg each day to make up for the missing one . He noted that other species of birds ignore the absence of a single egg but abandon their nests if more than one egg has been removed. It has also been noted by naturalists that a certain type of wasp always provides five – never four, never six - caterpillars for each of their eggs so that their young have something to eat when the eggs hatch . Research has also shown that both mice and pigeons can be taught to distinguish between odd and even numbers of food pieces.

   These and similar accounts have led some people to infer that creatures other than humans can actually count. They also point to dogs that have been taught to respond to numerical questions with the correct number of barks, or to horses that seem to solve arithmetic problems by stomping their hooves the proper number of times.

   Animals respond to quantities only when they are connected to survival as a species – as in the case of the eggs – or survival as individuals - as in the case of food. There is no transfer to other situations or from concrete reality to the abstract notion of numbers. Animals can “count” only when the objects are present and only when the numbers involved are small – not more than seven or eight. In lab experiments, animals trained to “count” one kind of object were unable to count any other type. The objects, not the numbers, are what interest them. Animals admittedly remarkable achievements simply do not amount to evidence of counting, nor do they reveal more than innate instincts, refined by the genes of successive generations, or the results of clever, careful conditioning by trainers.

Question 1: What is the main idea of this passage?

A. Although animals may be aware of quantities, they cannot actually count.

B. Of all animals, dogs and horses can count best.

C. Careful training is required to teach animals to perform tricks involving numbers

D. Animals cannot “count” more than one kind of object.

Đáp án A

Ý chính của bài đọc này là Although animals may be aware of quantities, they cannot actually count: Mặc dù động vật có thể có nhận thức về số lượng, thực chất chúng không biết đếm .

Question 2: Why does the author refer to Gilbert White’s book in line 2?

A. To indicate that more research is needed in this field.

B. To show how attitudes have changed since1786.

C. To provide evidence that some birds are aware of quantities.

D. To contradict the idea that animals can count.

Đáp án C

Mục đích của tác giả là đưa ra một số dẫn chứng chứng minh rằng, các loài chim có sự nhận thức về số lượng: the naturalist Gilbert White tells how he surreptitiously removed one egg a day from a plover‟s nest , and how the mother laid another egg each day to make up for the missing one. He noted that other species of birds ignore the absence of a single egg but abandon their nests if more than one egg has been removed

Question 3: The word “surreptitiously” is closest in meaning to

A. quickly     B. occasionally     C. stubbornly     D. secretly

Đáp án D

“surreptitiously”= secretly: lén lút, vụng trộm, một cách bí mật

Quickly: nhanh chóng

Occasionally: thỉnh thoảng

Stubbornly: một cách cứng đầu

Question 4: The word “odd” refers to which of the following?

A. numbers such as 1, 3, 5 and so on     B. lucky numbers

C. numbers such as 2, 4, 6 and so on     D. unusual numbers

Đáp án A

“odd” ở đây được hiểu với nghĩa „số lẻ‟ (ví dụ như 1,3,5,7, vv)

Lucky numbers: con số may mắn

Unusual numbers: con số bất thường

Question 5: The author mentions that all of the following are aware of quantities in some ways EXCEPT

A. wasps     B. Plovers     C. caterpillars     D. mice

Đáp án C

Thông tin ở đoạn đầu tiên:

- It has also been noted by naturalists that a certain type of wasp always provides five – never four, never six.

- caterpillars for each of their eggs so that their young have something to eat when the eggs hatch - Research has also shown that both mice and pigeons can be taught to distinguish between odd and even numbers of food pieces

- the naturalist Gilbert White tells how he surreptitiously removed one egg a day from a plover‟s nest , and how the mother laid another egg each day to make up for the missing one

Question 6: The word “accounts” is closest in meaning to

A. reasons     B. reports     C. deceptions     D. invoices

Đáp án B

“accounts” = reports: báo cáo, tường trình, thuật lại, kể lại

Reasons: lý do

Deceptions: sự dối trá. Lừa gạt

Invoices: hoá đơn

Question 7: How would the author probably characterize the people who are mentioned in the first line of the second paragraph

A. As foolish     B. As demanding     C. As clever     D. As mistaken

Đáp án D

“Những người” ở câu đầu tiên đoạn 2 có thể được miêu tả là “as mistaken” (nhầm lẫn, nhầm tưởng). Bởi những minh chứng ở đoạn 1 có thể khiến nhiều người nhầm tưởng rằng động vật có khả năng đếm.

Exercise 9: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

   Until recently, most American entrepreneurs were men. Discrimination against women in business, the demands of caring for families, and lack of business training had kept the number of women entrepreneurs small. Now, however, businesses owned by women account for more than $40 billion in annual revenues, and this figure is likely to continue rising throughout the 1990s. As Carolyn Doppelt Gray, an official of the Small Business Administration, has noted, "The 1970s was the decade of women entering management, and the 1980s turned out to be the decade of the woman entrepreneur". What are some of the factors behind this trend? For one thing, as more women earn advanced degrees in business and enter the corporate world, they are finding obstacles. Women are still excluded from most executive suites. Charlotte Taylor, a management consultant, had noted, "In the 1970s women believed if they got an MBA and worked hard they could become chairman of the board. Now they've found out that isn't going to happen, so they go out on their own".

   In the past, most women entrepreneurs worked in "women's" fields: cosmetics and clothing, for example. But this is changing. Consider ASK Computer Systems, a $22-million-a-year computer software business. It was founded in 1973 by Sandra Kurtzig, who was then a housewife with degrees in math and engineering. When Kurtzig founded the business, her first product was software that let weekly newspapers keep tabs on their newspaper carriers-and her office was a bedroom at home, with a shoebox under the bed to hold the company's cash. After she succeeded with the newspaper software system, she hired several bright computer-science graduates to develop additional programs. When these were marketed and sold, ASK began to grow. It now has 200 employees, and Sandra Kurtzig owns $66.9 million of stock.

   Of course, many women who start their own businesses fail, just as men often do. They still face hurdles in the business world, especially problems in raising money; the banking and finance world is still dominated by men, and old attitudes die hard. Most businesses owned by women are still quite small. But the situation is changing; there are likely to be many more Sandra Kurtzigs in the years ahead.

Question 1: What is the main idea of this passage?

A. The computer is especially lucrative for women today.

B. Women today are better educated than in the past, making them more attractive to the business world.

C. Women are better at small business than men are.

D. Women today are opening more business of their own.

Đáp án D

Thông tin ở đoạn 1: Until recently, most American entrepreneurs were men. Now, however, businesses owned by women account for more than $40 billion in annual revenues, and this figure is likely to continue rising throughout the 1990s.

Ngày nay, phụ nữ ngày càng có xu hướng mở rộng kinh doanh, và xu hướng này tăng lên trong suốt những năm 1990.

Question 2: The word “excluded” is closest meaning to ___________ .

A. often invited to     B. decorators of

C. not permitted in     D. charged admission to

Đáp án C

“excluded” ∼ not permitted in: bị loại trừ khỏi, không được cho phép

often invited to: thường xuyên được mời đến

decorators of: trang trí của…

charged admission to: cho phép, cấp phép cho…

Question 3: All of the following were mentioned in the passage as detriments to women in the business world EXCEPT ___________.

A. Women were required to stay at home with their families.

B. Women faced discrimination in business.

C. Women lacked ability to work in business.

D. Women were not trained in business.

Đáp án C

Thông tin ở câu thứ 2 của đoạn 1: Discrimination against women in business, the demands of caring for families, and lack of business training had kept the number of women entrepreneurs small.

Tất cả A. B , D đều có trong bài, chỉ có C Women lacked ability to work in business (Phụ nữ thiếu khả năng làm việc) là không được nhắc đến.

Question 4: According to the passage, Charlotte Taylor believes that women in 1970s ___________

A. were unrealistic about their opportunities in business management.

B. had fewer obstacles in business than they do today.

C. were unable to work hard enough to success in business.

D. were still more interested in education than business opportunities

Đáp án A

Thông tin ở câu trong ngoặc kép: “The 1970s was the decade of women entering management, and the 1980s turned out to be the decade of the woman entrepreneur”.

“Những năm 1970 là thập kỷ phụ nữ bước vào quản lý, và những năm 1980 hóa ra lại là thập kỷ của doanh nhân nữ”.

⇒ Do đó, phụ nữ trong những năm 1970 đã không thực tế về cơ hội của họ trong quản lý kinh doanh.

Question 5: The author mentions the “ shoesbox under the bed” in order to ___________.

A. show the resourcefulness of Sandra Kurtzig

B. show the frugality of women in business

C. point out that initially the financial resources of Sandra Kurtzig’s business were limited

D. suggest that the company needed to expand

Đáp án C

a shoebox under the bed to hold the company's cash ∼ Point out that initially the financial resources of Sandra Kurtzig‟s business were limited: Nguồn tài chính ban đầu của Sandra Kurtzig khá hạn hẹp.

Question 6: The expression “ keep tabs on” is closest meaning to ___________.

A. pay the salaries of     B. keep records of

C. provide transportation for     D. recognize the appearance of

Đáp án B

“ keep tabs on” ∼ keep records of : theo dõi, kiểm soát

Đây là một khẩu ngữ: keep a tab (tabs) on something (somebody): theo dõi kiểm soát ai, cái gì

Question 7: The word “hurdles” can be best replaced by ___________.

A. fences     B. .obstacles     C. questions     D. small groups

Đáp án A

“hurdles” ∼ fences: rào cản, vật chướng ngại

Ở đây không dùng obstacles mặc dù nó cũng có nghĩa là vật chướng ngại, bởi vì trong tiếng anh, đặc biệt là trong lĩnh vực doanh nghiệp (business), các loại rào cản được dùng bằng từ fences.

Question 8: It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes that business operated by women are small because ___________.

A. Many women fail at large businesses.

B. Women are not able to borrow money easily.

C. Women prefer a small intimate setting.

D. Women can’t deal with money.

Đáp án B

Thông tin ở những câu của đoạn cuối: They still face hurdles in the business world, especially problems in raising money; the banking and finance world is still dominated by men, and old attitudes die hard. Most businesses owned by women are still quite small.

Họ vẫn phải đối mặt với trở ngại trong thế giới kinh doanh, đặc biệt là vấn đề trong việc huy động tiền; các ngân hàng và tài chính thế giới vẫn còn bị chi phối bởi những người đàn ông, và quan điểm cũ khó mà mất đi được. Hầu hết các doanh nghiệp thuộc sở hữu của phụ nữ vẫn còn khá nhỏ.

Exercise 10: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

   Who talks more - men or women? Most people believe that women talk more. However, linguist Deborah Tannen, who has the studied the communication style of men and women, says that this is a stereotype. According to Tannen, women are more verbal - talk more - in private situations, where they use conversation as the “glue’ to hold relationships together. But, she says, men talk more in public situations, where they use conversation to exchange information and gain status. Tannen points out that we can see these difference even in children. Little girls often play with one ‘best friend’ and their play includes a lot of conversation. Little boys often play games in groups, their play usually involves more doing than talking. In school, girls are often better at verbal skills, while boys are often better at mathematics.

   A recent study at Emory University helps to shed light on the roots of this difference. Researchers studied conversation between children aged 3-6 and their parents. They found evidence that parents talk very differently to their sons than they do to their daughters. The startling conclusion was that parents use more language with their girls. Specifically, when parents talk with their daughters, they use more descriptive language and more details. There is also far more talk about emotions, especially with daughters than with sons.

Question 1: Which sentence best expresses the main idea of the first paragraph?

A. Women talk more than men on the whole

B.Women’s talking is a stereotype

C. Women talk more in private, and men talk more in public

D. Little boys and little girls have different ways of playing

Đáp án C

Dẫn chứng: “women are more verbal - talk more - in private situations .... men talk more in public situations”

Question 2: Which word is similar in meaning to the word “glue” ?

A. games     B. sticky substance     C. rope     D. means

Đáp án B

Glue ∼ sticky substance: chất kết dính, keo hồ

Ta có thể đoán được nghĩa của từ “glue” dựa vào cụm từ “hold relationships together”

Question 3: Which of the following phrases best explains the meaning of the word “verbal”?

A. Deriving from verbs     B. Connected with use of spoken language

C. Using very loud noise     D. Being very talkative

Đáp án B

Verbal ∼ connected with use of spoken language: bằng lời nói

Question 4: The word “they” refers to___________.

A. Situations     B. Men     C. Men and women     D. Women

Đáp án B

Dẫn chứng: “But, she says, men talk more in public situations, where they use conversation to exchange information” (Nhưng bà ấy nói rằng đàn ông nói nhiều hơn trong những tình huống công cộng, nơi mà họ dùng cuộc trò chuyện để trao đổi thông tin)

Question 5: Which sentence best expresses the main idea of the second paragraph?

A. Researchers have studied the conversations of children and their parents.

B. Parents do not talk much about sadness with their sons.

C. Study at Emory University can help to explain the differences between communication styles of boys and girls.

D. An Emory University study found than parents talk more with their daughters than with their sons.

Đáp án D

Dẫn chứng: “A recent study at Emory University helps to shed light on the roots of this difference... The startling conclusion was that parents use more language with their girls”

Question 6: Which of the following statement is TRUE about the passage?

A. Parents give more love to their daughters than to their sons.

B. Boys don’t like to be with their parents as much as girls do.

C. Parents use more language to talk with their daughters.

D. Boys don’t like showing emotions.

Đáp án C

Dẫn chứng: “The startling conclusion was that parents use more language with their girls. Specifically, when parents talk with their daughters, they use more descriptive language and more details.”

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