300 câu trắc nghiệm Đọc hiểu Tiếng Anh có đáp án cực hay (nâng cao - Phần 5)

300 câu trắc nghiệm Đọc hiểu Tiếng Anh có đáp án cực hay (nâng cao - Phần 5)

Exercise 1: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

Quảng cáo

   A number of factors related to the voice reveal the personality of the speaker. The first is the broad area of communication, which includes imparting information by use of language, communicating with a group or an individual and specialized communication through performance. A person conveys thoughts and ideas through choice of words, by a tone of voice that is pleasant or unpleasant, gentle or harsh, by the rhythm that is inherent within the language itself, and by speech rhythms that are flowing and regular or uneven and hesitant, and finally, by the pitch and melody of the utterance. When speaking before a group, a person's tone may indicate uncertainty or fright, confidence or calm. At interpersonal levels, the tone may reflect ideas and feelings over and above the words chosen, or may believe them. Here, the participant's tone can consciously or unconsciously reflect intuitive sympathy or antipathy, lack of concern or interest, fatigue, anxiety, enthusiasm or excitement, all of which are usually discernible by the acute listener. Public performance is a manner of communication that is highly specialized with its own techniques for obtaining effects by voice and /or gesture. The motivation derived from the text, and in the case of singing, the music, in combination with the performers skills, personality, and ability to create empathy will determine the success of artistic, political, or pedagogic communication.

   Second, the voice gives psychological clues to a person's self-image, perception of others, and emotional health. Self-image can be indicated by a tone of voice that is confident, pretentious, shy, aggressive, outgoing, or exuberant, to name only a few personality traits. Also the sound may give a clue to the facade or mask of that person, for example, a shy person hiding behind an overconfident front.

   How a speaker perceives the listener’s receptiveness, interest, or sympathy in any given conversation can drastically alter the tone of presentation, by encouraging or discouraging the speaker. Emotional health is evidenced in the voice by free and melodic sounds of the happy, by constricted and harsh sound of the angry, and by dull and lethargic qualities of the depressed.

Question 1: The word “Here” in the passage refers to__________.

A. interpersonal interaction B. the tone C. ideas and feelings D. words chosen

Quảng cáo

Đáp án A

Dẫn chứng: At interpersonal levels, the tone may reflect ideas and feelings over and above the words chosen, or may belie them. Here the participant's tone can consciously or unconsciously reflect intuitive sympathy or antipathy”

Question 2: Why does the author mention “artistic, political, or pedagogic communication” in the passage?

A. To introduce the idea of self-image

B. As examples of public performance

C. As examples of basic styles of communication

D. To contrast them to singing

Đáp án C

Dẫn chứng: “The motivation derived from the text, and in the case of singing, the music, in combination with the performer's skills, personality, and ability to create empathy will determine the success of artistic, political, or pedagogic communication.”

(Tác giả muốn liệt kê những loại hình giao tiếp trên như là những loại hình giao tiếp cơ bản cùa con người)

Question 3: The word "derived" in line 13 is closest in meaning to ____________.

A. discussed     B. prepared     C. registered     D. obtained

Đáp án D

Derived = obtained (v) đạt được, nhận được

Question 4: According to the passage, an exuberant tone of voice may be an indication of a person's _______.

A. general physical health     B. personality

C. ability to communicate     D. vocal quality

Đáp án B

Dẫn chứng: "Self-image can be indicated by a tone of voice that is confident, pretentious, shy, aggressive, outgoing, or exuberant, to name only a few personality traits"

Question 5: According to the passage, an overconfident front may hide _______.

A. hostility     B. shyness     C. friendliness     D. strength

Đáp án B

Dẫn chứng: "a shy person hiding behind an overconfident front"

Quảng cáo

Question 6: According to the passage, what does a constricted and harsh voice indicate?

A. Lethargy     B. Depression     C. Boredom     D. Anger

Đáp án D

Dẫn chứng: “Emotional health is evidenced in the voice by constricted and harsh sound of the angry”

Question 7: According to the passage, an exuberant tone of voice may be an indication of a person’s ____________.

A. general physical health     B. personality

C. ability to communicate     D. vocal quality

Đáp án B

Dẫn chứng: "Self-image can be indicated by a tone of voice that is confident, pretentious, shy, aggressive, outgoing, or exuberant, to name only a few personality traits”

Exercise 2: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

   Researchers in the field of psychology have found that one of the best way to make an important decision, such as choosing a university to attend or business to invest in, involves the utilization of a decision worksheet. Psychologists who study optimization compare the actual decisions made by people to theretical ideal decisions to see how similar they are. Proponents of the worksheet procedure believe that it will yield optimal, that is, the best decisions. Although there are several variations on the exact format that worksheets cam take, they are all similar in their essential aspects.

   Worksheets require defining the problem in a clear and concise way and then listing all possible solutions to the problem. Next, the pertinent considerations that all possible solutions to the problem. Next, the pertinent considerations that will be affected by each decision are listed, and the relative importance of each consideration or consequence is determined. Each consideration is assigned a numerical value to reflect its relative importance. A decision is mathematically calculated by adding these values together. The alternative with the highest number of points emerges as the best decision.

   Since most important problems are multifaceted, there are several alternatives to choose from, each with unique advantages and disadvantages. One of the benefits of a pencil and paper decision-making procedure is that it permits people to deal with more variables than their minds can generally comprehend and remember. On the average, people can keep about seven ideas in their minds at once. A worksheet can be especially useful when the decision involves a large number of variables with complex relationships. A realistic example for many college students is the question "What will I do after graduation?" A graduate might seek a position that offers specialized training, pursue an advanced degree, or travel abroad for a year.

   A decision-making worksheet begins with a succinct statement of the problem that will also help to narrow it. It is important to be clear about the distinction between long-range and immediate goals because long-range goals often involve a different decision than short-range ones. Focusing on long-range goals, a graduating student might revise the question above to "What will I do after graduation that will lead to a successful career?"

Quảng cáo

Question 1: According to decision-worksheet theory, an optimal decision is defined as one that

A. has the fewest variables to consider

B. uses the most decision worksheet

C. has the most points assigned to it

D. is agreed to by the greatest number of people

Đáp án C

Thông tin: A decision is mathematically calculated by adding these values together. The alternative with the highest number of points emerges as the best decision.

Question 2: Which of the following terms is defined in the passage?

A. Proponents (paragraph 1)     B. Optimal (paragraph 1)

C. Variables (paragraph 3)     D. Long-range goals (paragraph 4)

Đáp án B

Thông tin: Proponents of the worksheet procedure believe that it will yield optimal, that is, the best decisions.

(Những người ủng hộ bảng tính tin rằng nó sẽ mang lại tối ưu, đó là, các quyết định tốt nhất.)

Question 3: The word "essential" in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to

A. introductory     B. fundamental     C. changeable     D. Beneficial

Đáp án B

"essential" = fundamental: căn bản, thiết yếu

Although there are several variations on the exact format that worksheets cam take, they are all similar in their essential aspects. (Mặc dù có một số biến thể về định dạng chính xác mà các bảng tính có thể có, tất cả chúng đều giống nhau về các khía cạnh thiết yếu của chúng.)

Question 4: The author states that "On the average, people can keep about seven ideas in their minds at once" (paragraph 3) to explain that

A. people can learn to keep more than seven ideas in their minds with practice

B. most decisions involve seven steps.

C. human mental capacity has limitations.

D. some people have difficulty making minor as well as major decisions.

Đáp án là B

Câu này nghĩa là: trung bình, mỗi người giữ được 7 suy nghĩ cùng 1 lúc → khả năng thần kinh của con người rất hạn chế, không chứa được nhiều thông tin bằng worksheet.

Question 5: The word "it" in paragraph 4 refers to

A. worksheet     B. problem     C. distinction     D. Decision

Đáp án B

A decision-making worksheet begins with a succinct statement of the problem that will also help to narrow it. (Một bảng tính ra quyết định bắt đầu bằng một câu ngắn gọn về vấn đề cũng sẽ giúp thu hẹp nó.)

Question 6: What does the passage mainly discuss?

A. A comparison of actual decisions and ideal decisions.

B. Research on how people make decisions.

C. A tool to assist in making complex decisions.

D. Differences between long-range and short-range decision making.

Đáp án C

Bài văn thảo luận về “Một công cụ hỗ trợ đưa ra các quyết định phức tạp” đó là “decision worksheet”

Question 7: Of the following steps, which occurs BEFORE the others in making a decision worksheet?

A. Listing the consequences of each solution.

B. Writing down all possible solutions.

C. Deciding which consequences are most important.

D. Calculating a numerical summary of each solution.

Đáp án A

Worksheets require defining the problem in a clear and concise way and then listing all possible solutions to the problem.

Các bước sau đó lần lượt là:

- Listing the consequences of each solution.

- Deciding which consequences are most important

- Calculating a numerical summary of each solution.

Exercise 3: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

   “When a snow leopard stalks its prey among the mountain walls, it moves softly, slowly,” explains Indian biologist Raghunandan Singh Chundawat, who has studied the animal for years. “If it knocks a stone loose, it will reach out a foot to stop it from falling and making noise.” One might be moving right now, perfectly silent, maybe close by. But where? And how many are left to see?

   Best known for its spotted coat and long distinctive tail, the snow leopard is one of the world’s most secretive animals. These elusive cats can only be found high in the remote, mountainous regions of central Asia. For this reason, and because they hunt primarily at night, they are very rarely seen.

   Snow leopards have been officially protected since 1975, but enforcing this law has proven difficult. Many continue to be killed for their fur and body parts, which are worth a fortune on the black market. In recent years, though, conflict with local herders has also led to a number of snow leopard deaths. This is because the big cats kill the herders’ animals, and drag the bodies away to eat high up in the mountains.

   As a result of these pressures, the current snow leopard population is estimated at only 4,000 to 7,000, and some fear that the actual number may already have dropped below 3,500. The only way to reverse this trend and bring these cats back from near extinction, say conservationists, is to make them more valuable alive than dead.

   Because farming is difficult in Central Asia’s cold, dry landscape, traditional cultures depend mostly on livestock (mainly sheep and goats) to survive in these mountainous regions. At night, when snow leopards hunt, herders’ animals are in danger of snow leopard attacks. Losing only a few animals can push a family into desperate poverty. “The wolf comes and kills, eats, and goes somewhere else,” said one herder, “but snow leopards are always around. They have killed one or two animals many time. Everybody wanted to finish this leopard.”

   To address this problem, local religious leaders have called for an end to snow leopard killings, saying that these wild animals have the right to exist peacefully. They’ve also tried to convince people that the leopards are quite rare and thus it is important to protect them. Financial incentives are also helping to slow snow leopard killings. The organization Snow Leopard Conservancy–India has established Himalayan Homestays, a program that sends visitors to the region to herders’ houses. For a clean room and bed, meals with the family, and an introduction to their culture, visitors pay about ten U.S. dollars a night. Having guests once every two weeks through the tourist season provides the herders with enough income to replace the animals lost to snow leopards. In addition, Homestays helps herders build protective fences that keep out snow leopards. The organization also conducts environmental classes at village schools and trains Homestays members as nature guides, available for hire. In exchange, the herders agree not to kill snow leopards.

   In Mongolia, a project called Snow Leopard Enterprises (SLE) helps herder communities earn extra money in exchange for their promise to protect the endangered cat. Women in Mongolian herder communities make a variety of products—yarn for making clothes, decorative floor rugs, and toys—using the wool from their herds. SLE buys these items from herding families and sells them abroad. Herders must agree to protect the snow leopards and to encourage neighbors to do the same.

   The arrangement increases herders’ incomes by 10 to 15 percent and “elevates” the status of the women. If no one in the community kills the protected animals over the course of a year, the program members are rewarded with a 20 percent bonus in addition to the money they’ve already made. An independent review in 2006 found no snow leopard killings in areas where SLE operates. Today the organization continues to add more communities.

   Projects like the Homestays program in India and SLE’s business in Mongolia are doing well, though they cover only a small part of the snow leopard’s homeland, they make the leopards more valuable to more people each year. If these programs continue to do well, the snow leopard may just have a figting chance.

Question 1: Which of these is NOT true about the Himalayan Homestays program?

A. The organization helps herders to build fences.

B. Herders provide accommodation to guests.

C. Some herders work as nature guides.

D. Visitors pay $10 a week to stay at a herder’s house.

Đáp án D

Thông tin: For a clean room and bed, meals with the family, and an introduction to their culture, visitors pay about ten U.S. dollars a night.

Question 2: The purpose of the projects mentioned is

A. to persuade herders to live on eco-tourism not raising animals

B. to elevate the status of the women in the communities

C. to increase the population of snow leopards in wildlife reserves

D. to make local people have a sustainable life to protect snow leopards

Đáp án D

Thông tin: To address this problem, local religious leaders have called for an end to snow leopard killings, saying that these wild animals have the right to exist peacefully. They’ve also tried to convince people that the leopards are quite rare and thus it is important to protect them.

Question 3: The phrase “this trend” in paragraph 4 refers to

A. the fall in the snow leopard population     B. the pressures caused by the black market

C. increasing conflict with the herders     D. the opinions of conservationists

Đáp án A

As a result of these pressures, the current snow leopard population is estimated at only 4,000 to 7,000, and some fear that the actual number may already have dropped below 3,500. The only way to reverse this trend and bring these cats back from near extinction… (Như là kết quả của sức ép này, dân số báo tuyết hiện tại ước tính chỉ có 4.000 đến 7.000, và một số người lo ngại rằng con số thực tế có thể đã giảm xuống dưới 3.500. Cách duy nhất để đảo ngược xu hướng này và mang những con mèo này trở lại từ gần như tuyệt chủng…)

Question 4: What is the main idea of the third paragraph?

A. Local herders are uncooperative in attempts to save snow leopards.

B. The snow leopard’s endangerment is due to in part to the black market.

C. Snow leopards are killed for their fur and body parts.

D. It is difficult to enforce the laws made to protect the snow leopard.

Đáp án D

Thông tin: Snow leopards have been officially protected since 1975, but enforcing this law has proven difficult.

Question 5: The word “address” in in paragraph 6 can be replaced by

A. solve     B. locate     C. discuss     D. Change

Đáp án A

"address" = solve: giải quyết

To address this problem, local religious leaders have called for an end to snow leopard killings, saying that these wild animals have the right to exist peacefully. (Để giải quyết vấn đề này, các nhà lãnh đạo tôn giáo địa phương đã kêu gọi chấm dứt các vụ giết báo tuyết, nói rằng những động vật hoang dã này có quyền tồn tại một cách hòa bình.)

Question 6: Why is the Mongolian women's status in the community “elevated”?

A. They can encourage their neighbours.

B. They are saving money for the snow leopards.

C. They are earning money for the community.

D. They are living higher up in the mountain.

Đáp án C

Thông tin: Women in Mongolian herder communities make a variety of products—yarn for making clothes, decorative floor rugs, and toys—using the wool from their herds. SLE buys these items from herding families and sells them abroad. […] The arrangement increases herders’ incomes by 10 to 15 percent and “elevates” the status of the women.

Question 7: According to conservationists, what is the best way to save the snow leopard?

A. Create a nature park where they can be free

B. Move herders away from where the snow leopard lives

C. Pass laws to punish people who kill snow leopards for their fur

D. Make people recognize the value of living snow leopards.

Đáp án D

Thông tin: The only way to reverse this trend and bring these cats back from near extinction, say conservationists, is to make them more valuable alive than dead.

Question 8: The word “bodies” in paragraph 3 refers to

A. the big cats     B. snow leopards

C. local herders     D. the herders’ animals

Đáp án D

“bodies” đề cập đến “the herders’ animals”

This is because the big cats kill the herders’ animals, and drag the bodies away to eat high up in the mountains. (Điều này là do những con mèo lớn giết động vật của những người chăn nuôi gia súc, và kéo các xác chết đi để ăn ở cao trên núi.)

Exercise 4: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

   Before the 1500’s, the western plains of North America were dominated by farmers. One group, the Mandans, lived in the upper Missouri River country, primarily in present – day North Dakota.They had large villages of houses built close together. The tight arrangement enabled the Mandans to protect themselves more easily from the attacks of others who might seek to obtain some of the food these highly capable farmers stored from one year to the next.

   The women had primary responsibility for the fields. They had to exercise considerable skill to produce the desired results, for their northern location meant fleeting growing seasons. Winter often lingered; autumn could be ushered in by severe frost. For good measure, during the spring and summer, drought, heat, hail, grasshoppers, and other frustrations might await the wary grower.

   Under such conditions, Mandan women had to grow maize capable of weathering adversity. They began as early as it appeared feasible to do so in the spring, clearing the land, using fire to clear stubble from the fields and then planting. From this point until the first green corn could be harvested, the crop required labor and vigilance.

   Harvesting proceeded in two stages. In August the Mandans picked a smaller amount of the crop before it had matured fully. This green corn was boiled, dried and shelled, with some of the maize slated for immediate consumption and the rest stored in animal – skin bags. Later in the fall, the people picked the rest of the corn. They saved the best of the harvest for seeds or for trade, with the remainder eaten right away or stored for alter use in underground reserves. With appropriate banking of the extra food, the Mandans protected themselves against the disaster of crop failure and accompany hunger.

   The woman planted another staple, squash, about the first of June, and harvested it near the time of the green corn harvest. After they picked it, they sliced it, dried it, and strung the slices before they stored them. Once again, they saved the seeds from the best of the year’s crop. The Mandans also grew sunflowers and tobacco; the latter was the particular task of the older men.

Question 1: What is the main topic of the passage?

A. The problems encountered by farmers specializing in growing once crop

B. The agricultural activities of a North American Society

C. Various ways corn can be used.

D. Weather conditions on the western plains.

Đáp án B.

Giải thích: Ý B là ý tổng quát nhất, A, C, D chỉ là những ý nhỏ trong bài

Question 2: The Mandans built their houses close together in order to _____.

A. guard their supplies of food

B. protect themselves against the weather

C. share farming implements

D. allow more room for growing corn

Đáp án A.

Thông tin trong bài: They had large villages of houses built close together. The tight arrangement enabled the Mandans to protect themselves more easily from the attacks of others who might seek to obtain some of the food these highly capable farmers stored from one year to the next.

Question 3: The word “enabled” in the first paragraph is closest in meaning to _____.

A. covered     B. helped     C. reminded    D. isolated

Đáp án B

Giải thích: enable = help: giúp đỡ

Các từ còn lại: cover: bao phủ; remind: nhắc nhở; isolate: cô lập

Question 4: Why does the author believe that the Mandans were skilled farmers?

A. They developed effective fertilizers.

B. They could grow crops in most types of soil.

C. They could grow crops despite adverse weather.

D. They developed new varieties of corn.

Đáp án C

Giải thích: Dựa vào toàn bộ đoạn 3.

Question 5: The word “consumption” in the paragraph is closest in meaning to _____.

A. decay     B.conversation     C. eating    D. planting

Đáp án C

Giải thích: consumption: sự tiêu thụ (ngô) ⇒ eating: ăn

Các từ còn lại: decay: hư nát; thối rữa; conversation: cuộc trò chuyện; planting: trồng

Question 6: Which of the following processes does the author imply was done by both men and women?

A. clearing fields     B. Harvesting squash

C. Harvesting corn     D. Planting corn

Đáp án C

Harvesting corn: thu hoạch mùa ngô.

A, B, D là những công việc của phụ nữ, ý trong bài: … clearing the land, using fire to clear stubble from the fields and then planting. ( đoạn 3); ….The woman planted another staple, squash,… (đoạn 5).

Question 7: The word “disaster” in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to _____.

A. control     B. catastrophe    C. history     D. avoidance

Đáp án B

disaster: thảm họa = catastrophe

Các từ còn lại: control: điều khiển; history: lịch sử; avoidance: sự tránh xa

Question 8: The word “them” in the last paragraph refers to _____.

A. women     B. seeds     C. slices     D. the Mandans

Đáp án C

Thông tin trong bài: After they picked it, they sliced It, dried it, and strung the slices before they stored them.

Question 9: Which of the following crops was cultivated primarily by men?

A. Sunflower     B.Corn     C. Squash     D. Tobacco

Đáp án D

Thông tin trong bài: The Mandans also grew sunflowers and tobacco; the latter was the particular task of the older men.

Question 10: Throughout the passage, the author implies that the Mandans _____.

A. valued individuality     B. were very adventurous

C. were open to strangers     D. planned for the future

Đáp án D

Cả bài tập trung nói về hoạt động trồng trọt canh tác của người Mandans ⇒ họ đã lên kế hoạch cho tương lai là đáp án hợp lý nhất.

Exercise 5: Read the following passage and mark the letters A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

   Thunderstorms, with their jagged bursts of lightning and roaring thunder, are actually one of nature’s primary mechanisms for transferring heat from the surface of the earth into the atmosphere. A thunderstorm starts when low-lying pockets of warm air from the surface of the earth begin to rise. The pockets of warm air float upward through the air above that is both cooler and heavier. The rising pockets cool as their pressure decreases, and their latent heat is released above the condensation line through the formation of cumulus clouds.

   What will happen with these clouds depends on the temperature of the atmosphere. In winter, the air temperature differential between higher and lower altitudes is not extremely great, and the temperature of the rising air mass drops more slowly. During these colder months, the atmosphere, therefore, tends to remain rather stable. In summer, however, when there is a high accumulation of heat near the earth’s surface, in direct contrast to the considerably colder air higher up, the temperature differential between higher and lower altitudes is much more pronounced. As warm air rises in this type of environment, the temperature drops much more rapidly than it does in winter; when the temperature drops more than 4 degrees Fahrenheit per thousand feet of altitude, cumulus clouds aggregate into a single massive cumulonimbus cloud, or thunderhead.

   In isolation, a single thunderstorm is an impressive but fairly benign way for Mother Earth to defuse trapped heat from her surface; thunderstorms, however, can appear in concert, and the resulting show, while extremely impressive, can also prove extraordinarily destructive. When there is a large-scale collision between cold air and warm air masses during the summer months, a squall line, or series of thunderheads, may develop. It is common for a squall line to begin when an advancing cold front meets up with and forces itself under a layer of warm and moist air, creating a line of thunderstorms that races forward at speeds of approximately forty miles per hour. A squall line, which can be hundreds of miles long and can contain fifty distinct thunderheads, is a magnificent force of nature with incredible potential for destruction. Within the squall line, often near its southern end, can be found supercells, long-lived rotating storms of exceptional strength that serve as the source of tornadoes.

Question 1: The topic of the passage is ________.

A. the development of thunderstorms and squall lines

B. the devastating effects of tornadoes

C. cumulus and cumulonimbus clouds

D. the power of tornadoes

Đáp án A

Giải thích: Câu hỏi này ta nên làm cuối cùng để có cái nhìn khái quát về tổng thể bài văn là về sự phát triển của bão có sấm sét và dòng đối lưu.

Question 2: The word “mechanisms” in paragraph 1 is most likely ________.

A. machines     B. motions     C. methods     D. materials

Đáp án C

“mechanisms”: cơ chế, phương pháp

Thunderstorms, with their jagged bursts of lightning and roaring thunder, are actually one of nature’s primary mechanisms for transferring heat from the surface of the earth into the atmosphere.

Bão có sấm sét, với một loạt chớp và tiếng sấm ầm ầm, thực sự là một trong những cơ chế chính của thiên nhiên để truyền nhiệt từ bề mặt trái đất vào khí quyển.

Question 3: It can be inferred from the passage that, in summer, ________.

A. there is not a great temperature differential between higher and lower altitudes

B. the greater temperature differential between higher and lower altitudes makes thunderstorms more likely to occur

C. there is not much cold air higher up in the atmosphere

D. the temperature of rising air drops more slowly than it does in winter

Đáp án B

Thông tin: In summer, however, when there is a high accumulation of heat near the earth’s surface, in direct contrast to the considerably colder air higher up, the temperature differential between higher and lower altitudes is much more pronounced. As warm air rises in this type of environment, the temperature drops much more rapidly than it does in winter

Question 4: The word “benign” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to ________.

A. harmless     B. beneficial     C. ferocious     D. spectacular

Đáp án A

Giải thích: “benign” = harmless: ôn hoà, lành tính, vô hại

Question 5: The expression “in concert” in paragraph 3 could best be replaced by ________.

A. as a chorus     B. with other musicians

C. as a cluster     D. in a performance

Đáp án C

“in concert” = as a cluster thunderstorms, however, can appear in concert, and the resulting show, while extremely impressive, can also prove extraordinarily destructive. cơn bão có sấm sét có thể xuất hiện theo cụm, và kết quả, trong khi cực kỳ ấn tượng, cũng có thể tàn phá khác thường.

Question 6: The word “itself” in paragraph 3 refers to ________.

A. a large-scale collision     B. a squall line

C. an advancing cold front     D. a layer of warm and moist air

Đáp án C

“itself” chính là “an advancing cold front”

It is common for a squall line to begin when an advancing cold front meets up with and forces itself under a layer of warm and moist air

Dòng đối lưu thường bắt đầu khi một frông lạnh xảy đến trước tình cờ và ép chính nó dưới một lớp không khí ấm áp và ẩm ướt

Question 7: All of the following are mentioned in the passage about supercells EXCEPT that they ________.

A. are of short duration     B. have circling winds

C. have extraordinary power     D. can give birth to tornadoes

Đáp án A

Thông tin: Within the squall line, often near its southern end, can be found supercells, long-lived rotating storms of exceptional strength that serve as the source of tornadoes.

Question 8: This reading would most probably be assigned in which of the following courses?

A. Geography     B. Meteorology     C. Marine Biology     D. Chemistry

Đáp án B

Bài này thuộc lĩnh vực khí tượng học.

Exercise 6: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

   A considerable body of research has demonstrated a correlation between birth order and aspects such as temperament and behavior, and some psychologists believe that birth order significantly affects the development of personality. Psychologist Alfred Adler was a pioneer in the study of the relationship between birth order and personality. A key point in his research and in the hypothesis that he developed based on it was that it was not the actual numerical birth position that affected personality; instead, it was the similar responses in large numbers of families to children in specific birth order positions that had an effect. For example, first-borns, who have their parents to themselves initially and do not have to deal with siblings in the first part of their lives, tend to have their first socialization experiences with adults and therefore tend to find the process of peer socialization more difficult. In contrast, later-born children have to deal with siblings from the first moment of their lives and therefore tend to have stronger socialization skills.

   Numerous studies since Adler’s have been conducted on the effect of birth order and personality. These studies have tended to classify birth order types into four different categories: first-born, second-born and/or middle, last, and only child.

   Studies have consistently shown that first-born children tend to exhibit similar, positive and negative personality traits. First-borns have consistently been linked with academic achievement in various studies; in one study, the number of National Merit scholarship winners who are first-borns was found to be equal to the number of second-and third-borns combined. First-borns have been found to be more responsible and assertive than those born in other birth-order positions and tend to rise to positions of leadership more often than others; more first-borns have served in the U.S. Congress and as U.S. presidents than have those born in other birth-orderpositions. However, studies have shown that first-borns tend to be more subject to stress and were considered problem children more often than later-borns.

   Second-born and/or middle children demonstrate markedly different tendencies from first-borns. They tend to feel inferior to the older child or children because it is difficult for them to comprehend that their lower level of achievement is a function of age rather than ability, and they often try to succeed in areas other than those in which their older sibling or siblings excel. They tend to be more trusting, accepting, and focused on others than the more self-centered first-borns, and they tend to have a comparatively higher level of success in team sports than do first-borns or only children, who more often excel in individual sports.

   The last-born child is the one who tends to be the eternal baby of the family and thus often exhibits a strong sense of security. Last-borns collectively achieve the highest degree of social success and demonstrate the highest levels of self-esteem of all the birth-order positions. They often exhibit less competitiveness than older brothers and sisters and are more likely to take part in less competitive group games or in social organizations such as sororities and fraternities.

   Only children tend to exhibit some of the main characteristics of first-borns and some of the characteristics of last-borns. Only children tend to exhibit the strong sense of security and self-esteem exhibited by lastborns while, like first-borns, they are more achievement oriented and more likely than middle-or last-borns to achieve academic success. However, only children tend to have the most problems establishing close relationships and exhibit a lower need for affiliation than other children.

Question 1: The word “body” in paragraph 1 could best be replaced by________.

A. amount     B. organization     C. corpse     D. skeleton

Đáp án A

"body" = amount: lượng

Question 2: The word “key” in paragraph 1 could best be replaced by________.

A. secret     B. studied     C. significant     D. locked

Đáp án C

"key" ∼ significant: đáng kể, có ý nghĩa, quan trọng

Question 3: The word “it” in paragraph 1 refers to________.

A. component     B. research     C. hypothesis     D. personality

Đáp án B

"it" đề cập đến “research”

A key point in his research and in the hypothesis that he developed based on it was that it was not the actual numerical birth position that affected personality.

Một điểm quan trọng trong nghiên cứu của ông và trong giả thuyết mà ông đã phát triển dựa trên nó là không phải số vị trí trật tự sinh thật tế ảnh hưởng đến tính cách.

Question 4: What is stated in paragraph 1 about Adler?

A. He had found that the responses by family members had little to do with personality.

B. He believed that it was the actual birth order that affected personality.

C. He was one of the first to study the effect of birth order on personality.

D. He was the only one to study birth order.

Đáp án C

Thông tin: Psychologist Alfred Adler was a pioneer in the study of the relationship between birth order and personality.

Question 5: Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the italic sentence in paragraph 3? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

A. Because first-borns tend to be very assertive, they are uncomfortable serving in government positions.

B. Several examples support the idea that first-borns have characteristics that make them leaders.

C. An interesting fact that is difficult to explain is that many first-borns have served in high government positions.

D. In spite of certain characteristics that first-borns possess, many of them become leaders.

Đáp án B

Giải thích: Câu nào trong các câu dưới đây thể hiện thông tin thiết yếu trong câu in nghiêng trong đoạn 3? Các lựa chọn không chính xác thay đổi ý nghĩa theo những cách quan trọng hoặc loại những thông tin cần thiết.

A. Bởi vì con đầu lòng có khuynh hướng quyết đoán, họ cảm thấy không thoải mái trong các vị trí của chính phủ.

B. Một số ví dụ ủng hộ ý tưởng rằng con đầu lòng có những đặc điểm làm cho họ trở thành những nhà lãnh đạo.

C. Một sự kiện thú vị khó giải thích là nhiều con đầu lòng phục vụ ở các vị trí cao của chính phủ.

D. Dù cho những đặc điểm nhất định mà con đầu lòng có, nhiều người trong số họ trở thành lãnh đạo.

Question 6: The word “accepting” in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to________.

A. respectable     B. affectionate v C. admissible     D. tolerant

Đáp án D

"accepting" = tolerant: khoan dung, tha thứ, độ lượng

Question 7: Which of the following is NOT true?

A. Middle children tend to have a preference for team sports.

B. First-borns tend to do well in individual sports.

C. Only children tend to prefer individual over team sports.

D. Last-borns tend to prefer games with fierce competition.

Đáp án D

Thông tin: They often exhibit less competitiveness than older brothers and sisters and are more likely to take part in less competitive group games or in social organizations such as sororities and fraternities.

Question 8: The phrase “more achievement oriented” in the paragraph 6 is closest in meaning to ______.

A. more skilled as leaders

B. more aware of surroundings

C. more directly involved

D. more focused on accomplishments

Đáp án D

"more achievement oriented" = more focused on accomplishments

they are more achievement oriented and more likely than middle-or last-borns to achieve academic success (họ có xu hướng thành công hơn và có nhiều khả năng để đạt được thành công trong học tập hơn con ở giữa- hoặc con út)

Exercise 7: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

   Certainly no creature in the sea is odder than the common sea cucumber. All living creature, especially human beings, have their peculiarities, but everything about the little sea cucumber seems unusual. What else can be said about a bizarre animal that, among other eccentricities, eats mud, feeds almost continuously day and night but can live without eating for long periods, and can be poisonous but is considered supremely edible by gourmets?

   For some fifty million years, despite all its eccentricities, the sea cucumber has subsisted on its diet of mud. It is adaptable enough to live attached to rocks by its tube feet, under rocks in shallow water, or on the surface of mud flats. Common in cool water on both Atlantic and Pacific shores, it has the ability to such up mud or sand and digest whatever nutrients are present.

   Sea cucumbers come in a variety of colors, ranging from black to reddish-brown to sand-color and nearly white. One form even has vivid purple tentacle. Usually the creatures are cucumber-shaped-hence their name-and because they are typically rock inhabitants, this shape, combine with flexibility, enables them to squeeze into crevices where they are safe from predators and ocean currents.

   Although they have voracious appetites, eating day and night, sea cucumbers have the capacity to become quiescent and live at a low metabolic rate-feeding sparingly or not at all for long periods, so that the marine organisms that provide their food have a chance to multiply. If it were not for this faculty, they would devour all the food available in a short time and would probably starve themselves out of existence.

   But the most spectacular thing about the sea cucumber is the way it defends itself. Its major enemies are fish and crabs, when attacked, it squirts all its internal organs into the water. It also casts off attached structures such as tentacles. The sea cucumber will eviscerate and regenerate itself if it is attached or even touched; it will do the same if the surrounding water temperature is too high or if the water becomes too polluted.

Question 1: What does the passage mainly discuss?

A. Places where the sea cucumber can be found

B. The reason for the sea cucumber’s name

C. How to identify the sea cucumber

D. What makes the sea cucumber unusual

Đáp án D

Giải thích: Đọc xong toàn bộ bài ta có thể xác định nội dung chính là về điều gì làm cho hải sâm bất thường.

Question 2: The word “bizarre” is closest meaning to

A. rare     B. simple     C. marine     D. odd

Đáp án D

Giải thích: "bizarre" = odd: kỳ lạ, kỳ quái

Question 3: The fourth paragraph of the passage primarily discusses

A. the eating habits of sea cucumbers

B. the food sources of sea cucumbers

C. the reproduction of sea cucumbers

D. threats to sea cucumbers’ existence

Đáp án A

Thông tin: Although they have voracious appetites, eating day and night, sea cucumbers have the capacity to become quiescent and live at a low metabolic rate-feeding sparingly or not at all for long periods

Question 4: According to the passage, why is the shape of sea cucumbers important?

A. It makes them attractive to fish

B. It helps them to protect themselves from danger.

C. It helps them to digest their food.

D. It makes it easier for them to move through the mud.

Đáp án B

Thông tin: Usually the creatures are cucumber-shaped-hence their name-and because they are typically rock inhabitants, this shape, combine with flexibility, enables them to squeeze into crevices where they are safe from predators and ocean currents.

Question 5: The phrase “casts off” is closest in meaning to

A. gets rid of     B. grows again     C. grabs     D. uses as a weapon

Đáp án A

“casts off" = gets rid of: bỏ đi, loại bỏ

Question 6: The words “this faculty” refers to the sea cucumber’s ability to

A. live at a low metabolic rate

B. squeeze into crevices

C. devour all available food in a short time

D. suck up mud or sand

Đáp án A

Thông tin: sea cucumbers have the capacity to become quiescent and live at a low metabolic rate-feeding sparingly or not at all for long periods, so that the marine organisms that provide their food have a chance to multiply. If it were not for this faculty, they would devour all the food available in a short time and would probably starve themselves out of existence.

(hải sâm có khả năng trở nên yên lặng và sống ở mức tỷ lệ trao đổi chất thấp- ăn ít hoặc không trong một thời gian dài, để các sinh vật cung cấp thức ăn cho chúng có cơ hội nhân lên. Nếu không có chức năng này, chúng sẽ nuốt tất cả thức ăn có sẵn trong một thời gian ngắn và có lẽ sẽ chết đói.)

Question 7: What can be inferred about the defense mechanisms of the sea cucumber?

A. They are very sensitive to surrounding stimuli.

B. They are almost useless.

C. They are similar to those of most sea creatures.

D. They require group cooperation.

Đáp án A

Thông tin: The sea cucumber will eviscerate and regenerate itself if it is attached or even touched; it will do the same if the surrounding water temperature is too high or if the water becomes too polluted.

Exercise 8: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

   Scientists do not yet thoroughly understand just how the body of an individual becomes sensitive to a substance that is harmless or even wholesome for the average person. Milk, wheat, and egg, for example, rank among the most healthful and widely used foods. Yet these foods can cause persons sensitive to them to suffer greatly. At first, the body of the individual is not harmed by coming into contact with the substance. After a varying interval of time, usually longer than a few weeks, the body becomes sensitive to it, and an allergy has begun to develop. Sometimes it's hard to figure out if you have a food allergy, since it can show up so many different ways. Your symptoms could be caused by many other problems. You may have rashes, hives, joint pains mimicking arthritis, headaches, irritability, or depression. The most common food allergies are to milk, eggs, seafood, wheat, nuts, seeds, chocolate, oranges, and tomatoes. Many of these allergies will not develop if these foods are not fed to an infant until her or his intestines mature at around seven months. Breast milk also tends to be protective. Migraines can be set off by foods containing tyramine, phenathylamine, monosodium glutamate, or sodium nitrate. Common foods which contain these are chocolate, aged cheeses, sour cream, red wine, pickled herring, chicken livers, avocados, ripe bananas, cured meats, many Oriental and prepared foods (read the labels!). Some people have been successful in treating their migraines with supplements of B-vitamins, particularly B6 and niacin. Children who are hyperactive may benefit from eliminating food additives, especially colorings, and foods high in salicylates from their diets.

Question 1: The topic of this passage is______________.

A. reactions to foods     B. food and nutrition    C. infants and allergies     D. a good diet

Đáp án A

Chủ đề của bài viết là: những phản ứng với thức ăn. Đọc bài sẽ dễ dàng thấy những supporting idea cho topic này.

Question 2: According to the passage, the difficulty in diagnosing allergies to foods is due to ______________.

A. nthe vast number of different foods we eat

B. lack of a proper treatment plan

C. the similarity of symptoms of the allergy to other problems

D. the use of prepared formula to feed babies

Đáp án C

Thông tin ở 2 câu trong bài: Sometimes it’s hard to figure out if you have a food allergy, since it can show up so many different ways. Your symptoms could be caused by many other problems.

Đôi khi thật khó để tìm ra nếu bạn bị dị ứng thực phẩm, vì nó có thể biểu hiện lên rất nhiều cách khác nhau. triệu chứng của bạn có thể bị gây ra bởi nhiều vấn đề khác.

Question 3: The word "symptoms" is closest in meaning to______________.

A. indications     B. diet     C. diagnosis     D. prescriptions

Đáp án A

symptoms = indications : dấu hiệu, biểu hiện, triệu chứng

Question 4: The phrase "set off" is closest in meaning to______________.

A. relieved     B. identified     C. avoided     D. triggered

Đáp án D

triggered = set off: được gây ra

Question 5: What can be inferred about babies from this passage?

A. They can eat almost anything.

B. They should have a carefully restricted diet as infants.

C. They gain little benefit from being breast fed.

D. They may become hyperactive if fed solid food too early.

Đáp án B

Thông tin ở câu cuối: Children who are hyperactive may benefit from eliminating food additives, especially colorings, and foods high in salicylates from their diets.

Những trẻ quá hiếu động có thể được hưởng lợi từ việc loại bỏ các chất phụ gia thực phẩm, đặc biệt là chất tạo màu, và các thực phẩm giàu salicylate từ chế độ ăn uống của chúng.

⇒ They should have a carefully restricted diet as infants. Chúng nên có một chế độ ăn uống hạn chế một cách cẩn thận như trẻ sơ sinh.

Question 6: The word "hyperactive" is closest in meaning to______________.

A. overly active     B. unusually low activity

C. excited     D. inquisitive

Đáp án A

Hyperactive = overly active : hiếu động thái quá

Question 7: The author states that the reason that infants need to avoid certain foods related to allergies has to do with the infant's______________.

A. lack of teeth     B. poor metabolism

C. underdeveloped intestinal tract     D. inability to swallow solid foods

Đáp án C

Thông tin trong bài: Many of these allergies will not develop if these foods are not fed to an infant until her or his intestines mature at around seven months

Nhiều loại dị ứng sẽ không phát triển nếu những thực phẩm này không được làm thức ăn cho trẻ sơ sinh cho đến khi đường ruột của bé trưởng thành vào khoảng bảy tháng.

Exercise 9: Read the following passage and mark the letters A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

   The rapid transcontinentat settlement and these new urban industrial circumstances of the last half of the 19th century were accompanied by the development of national literature of great abundance and variety. New themes, new forms, new subjects, new regions, new authors, new audiences all emerged in the literature of this half century.

   As a result, at the onset of World War I, the spirit and substance of American literature had evolved remarkably, just as its center of production had shifted from Boston to New York in the late 1880s and the sources of its energy to Chicago and the Midwest. No longer was it produced, at least in its popular forms, in the main by solemn, typically moralistic men from New England and the Old South; no longer were polite, well-dressed, grammatically correct, middle-class young people the only central characters in its narratives; no longer were these narratives to be set in exotic places and remote times; no longer, indeed, were fiction, poetry, drama, and formal history the chief acceptable forms of literary expression; no longer, finally, was literature read primarily by young, middle class women.

   In sum, American literature in these years fulfilled in considerable measure the condition Walt Whitman called for in 1867 in describing Leaves of Grass: it treats, he said of his own major work, each state and region as peers "and expands from them, and includes the world ... connecting an American citizen with the citizens of all nations."

Question 1: The main idea of this passage is________.

A. that the new American literature was less provincial than the old

B. that World War I caused a dramatic change in America

C. that centers of culture shifted from East to West

D. that most people were wary of the new literature

Đáp án A

Ý chính của bài là : the new American literature was less provincial than the old

Question 2: It can be inferred from the passage that the previous passage probably discussed ________.

A. the importance of tradition to writers

B. new developments in industrialization and population shifts

C. the fashions and values of 19th century America

D. the limitations of American literature to this time

Đáp án B

Câu đầu tiên của bài đọc là: The rapid transcontinentat settlement and these new urban industrial circumstances of the last half of the 19th century were accompanied by the development of national literature of great abundance and variety.

Question 3: The word “evolved” in paragraph two is closest in meaning to________.

A. became famous     B. turned back     C. diminished     D. changed

Đáp án D

“evolved” ∼ changed: thay đổi, tiến triển

As a result, at the onset of World War I, the spirit and substance of American literature had evolved remarkably. (Kết quả là, vào lúc bắt đầu của Thế chiến I, tinh thần và vật chất của văn học Mỹ đã phát triển đáng kể)

Question 4: The word “it” in the second paragraph refers to________.

A. the population     B. the energy

C. American literature     D. the manufacturing

Đáp án C

“it” được thay thế cho American literature trong câu trước: As a result, at the onset of World War I, the spirit and substance of American literature had evolved remarkably

Question 5: The word “exotic" in paragraph two is closest in meaning to________.

A. urban     B. unusual     C. well-known     D. old-fashioned

Đáp án B

“exotic" ∼ unusual: kỳ lạ, khác thường

Question 6: The author uses the word “indeed” in the second paragraph for what purpose?

A. To emphasize the contrast he is making.

B. For variety in a lengthy paragraph.

C. To wind down his argument.

D. To show a favorable attitude to these forms of literature.

Đáp án A

Tác giả sử dụng “indeed” để To emphasize the contrast he is making. (Để nhấn mạnh sự tương phản ông đang làm.)

No longer was it produced, at least in its popular forms;…; no longer, indeed, were fiction, poetry, drama, and formal history the chief acceptable forms of literary expression.

Nó không còn được sản xuất, ít nhất là trong các hình thức phổ biến của nó;…; thực sự, tiểu thuyết, thơ, kịch, và lịch sử chính thống không còn được chấp nhận là các hình thức chính của biểu đạt văn chương

Question 7: The phrase “these years” in the third paragraph refers to________.

A. 1850-1900     B. the 1900s     C. the early 1800s     D. the present

Đáp án A

The rapid transcontinentat settlement and these new urban industrial circumstances of the last half of the 19th century were accompanied by the development of national literature of great abundance and variety. New themes, new forms, new subjects, new regions, new authors, new audiences all emerged in the literature of this half century.

“these years” ở đây chính là đề cập đến the last half of the 19th century (nửa cuối thế kỉ 19) ⇒ từ năm 1850-1900

Question 8: It can be inferred from the passage that Walt Whitman________.

A. disliked urban life     B. was disapproving of the new literature

C. wrote Leaves of Grass     D. was an international diplomat

Đáp án C

Thông tin ở câu đầu đoạn cuối: In sum, American literature in these years fulfilled in considerable measure the condition Walt Whitman called for in 1867 in describing Leaves of Grass

Tóm lại, văn học Mỹ trong những năm này đã đáp ứng, xét theo một tiêu chuẩn thích hợp, được điều kiện mà Walt Whitman yêu cầu vào năm 1867 khi mô tả tác phẩm Leaves of Grass ⇒ Walt Whitman đã viết Leaves of Grass.

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