Bài tập Tiếng Anh 12 mới Unit 4 Reading có đáp án

UNIT 4: The mass media

Bài tập Tiếng Anh 12 mới Unit 4 Reading có đáp án

Bài 1. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

Researchers in the field of psychology have found that one of the best way to make an important decision, such as choosing a university to attend or business to invest in, involves the utilization of a decision worksheet. Psychologists who study optimization compare the actual decisions made by people to theretical ideal decisions to see how similar they are. Proponents of the worksheet procedure believe that it will yield optimal, that is, the best decisions. Although there are several variations on the exact format that worksheets cam take, they are all similar in their essential aspects.

Worksheets require defining the problem in a clear and concise way and then listing all possible solutions to the problem. Next, the pertinent considerations that all possible solutions to the problem. Next, the pertinent considerations that will be affected by each decision are listed, and the relative importance of each consideration or consequence is determined. Each consideration is assigned a numerical value to reflect its relative importance. A decision is mathematically calculated by adding these values together. The alternative with the highest number of points emerges as the best decision.

Since most important problems are multifaceted, there are several alternatives to choose from, each with unique advantages and disadvantages. One of the benefits of a pencil and paper decision-making procedure is that it permits people to deal with more variables than their minds can generally comprehend and remember. On the average, people can keep about seven ideas in their minds at once. A worksheet can be especially useful when the decision involves a large number of variables with complex relationships. A realistic example for many college students is the question "What will I do after graduation?" A graduate might seek a position that offers specialized training, pursue an advanced degree, or travel abroad for a year.

A decision-making worksheet begins with a succinct statement of the problem that will also help to narrow it. It is important to be clear about the distinction between long-range and immediate goals because long-range goals often involve a different decision than short-range ones. Focusing on long-range goals, a graduating student might revise the question above to "What will I do after graduation that will lead to a successful career?"

Question 1: According to decision-worksheet theory, an optimal decision is defined as one that

A. has the fewest variables to consider

B. uses the most decision worksheet

C. has the most points assigned to it

D. is agreed to by the greatest number of people

Đáp án: C

Thông tin: A decision is mathematically calculated by adding these values together. The alternative with the highest number of points emerges as the best decision.

Dịch nghĩa: Một quyết định được tính toán bằng cách cộng các giá trị này lại với nhau. Sự thay thế với số điểm cao nhất nổi lên là quyết định tốt nhất.

Question 2: Which of the following terms is defined in the passage?

A. Proponents (paragraph 1)

B. Optimal (paragraph 1)

C. Variables (paragrph 3)

D. Long-range goals (paragraph 4)

Đáp án: B

Thông tin: Proponents of the worksheet procedure believe that it will yield optimal, that is, the best decisions.

Dịch nghĩa: Những người ủng hộ bảng tính tin rằng nó sẽ mang lại tối ưu, đó là, các quyết định tốt nhất.

Question 3: The word "essential" in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to

A. introductory          B. fundamental

C. changeable          D. Beneficial

Đáp án:

Từ mới: Essential = fundamental: căn bản, thiết yếu

Question 4: The author states that "On the average, people can keep about seven ideas in their minds at once" (paragraph 3) to explain that

A. people can learn to keep more than seven ideas in their minds with practice

B. most decisions involve seven steps.

C. human mental capacity has limitations.

D. some people have difficulty making minor as well as major decisions.

Đáp án: B

Dịch nghĩa: trung bình, mỗi người giữ được 7 suy nghĩ cùng 1 lúc → khả năng thần kinh của con người rất hạn chế, không chứa được nhiều thông tin bằng worksheet.

Question 5: The word "it" in paragraph 4 refers to

A. worksheet          B. problem

C. distinction          D. decision

Đáp án: B

Thông tin: A decision-making worksheet begins with a succinct statement of the problem that will also help to narrow it.

Dịch nghĩa: Một bảng tính ra quyết định bắt đầu bằng một câu ngắn gọn về vấn đề cũng sẽ giúp thu hẹp nó.

Question 6: What does the passage mainly discuss?

A. A comparison of actual decisions and ideal decisions.

B. Research on how people make decisions.

C. A tool to assist in making complex decisions.

D. Differences between long-range and short-range decision making.

Đáp án: C

Giải thích: Bài văn thảo luận về “Một công cụ hỗ trợ đưa ra các quyết định phức tạp” đó là “decision worksheet”

Question 7: Of the following steps, which occurs BEFORE the others in making a decision worksheet?

A. Listing the consequences of each solution.

B. Writing down all possible solutions.

C. Deciding which consequences are most important.

D. Calculating a numerical summary of each solution.

Đáp án: A

Giải thích:

Worksheets require defining the problem in a clear and concise way and then listing all possible solutions to the problem.

Các bước sau đó lần lượt là:

- Listing the consequences of each solution.

- Deciding which consequences are most important

- Calculating a numerical summary of each solution.

Bài 2. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

“When a snow leopard stalks its prey among the mountain walls, it moves softly, slowly,” explains Indian biologist Raghunandan Singh Chundawat, who has studied the animal for years. “If it knocks a stone loose, it will reach out a foot to stop it from falling and making noise.” One might be moving right now, perfectly silent, maybe close by. But where? And how many are left to see?

Best known for its spotted coat and long distinctive tail, the snow leopard is one of the world’s most secretive animals. These elusive cats can only be found high in the remote, mountainous regions of central Asia. For this reason, and because they hunt primarily at night, they are very rarely seen.

Snow leopards have been officially protected since 1975, but enforcing this law has proven difficult. Many continue to be killed for their fur and body parts, which are worth a fortune on the black market. In recent years, though, conflict with local herders has also led to a number of snow leopard deaths. This is because the big cats kill the herders’ animals, and drag the bodies away to eat high up in the mountains.

As a result of these pressures, the current snow leopard population is estimated at only 4,000 to 7,000, and some fear that the actual number may already have dropped below 3,500. The only way to reverse this trend and bring these cats back from near extinction, say conservationists, is to make them more valuable alive than dead.

Because farming is difficult in Central Asia’s cold, dry landscape, traditional cultures depend mostly on livestock (mainly sheep and goats) to survive in these mountainous regions. At night, when snow leopards hunt, herders’ animals are in danger of snow leopard attacks. Losing only a few animals can push a family into desperate poverty. “The wolf comes and kills, eats, and goes somewhere else,” said one herder, “but snow leopards are always around. They have killed one or two animals many time. Everybody wanted to finish this leopard.”

To address this problem, local religious leaders have called for an end to snow leopard killings, saying that these wild animals have the right to exist peacefully. They’ve also tried to convince people that the leopards are quite rare and thus it is important to protect them. Financial incentives are also helping to slow snow leopard killings. The organization Snow Leopard Conservancy–India has established Himalayan Homestays, a program that sends visitors to the region to herders’ houses. For a clean room and bed, meals with the family, and an introduction to their culture, visitors pay about ten U.S. dollars a night. Having guests once every two weeks through the tourist season provides the herders with enough income to replace the animals lost to snow leopards. In addition, Homestays helps herders build protective fences that keep out snow leopards. The organization also conducts environmental classes at village schools and trains Homestays members as nature guides, available for hire. In exchange, the herders agree not to kill snow leopards.

In Mongolia, a project called Snow Leopard Enterprises (SLE) helps herder communities earn extra money in exchange for their promise to protect the endangered cat. Women in Mongolian herder communities make a variety of products—yarn for making clothes, decorative floor rugs, and toys—using the wool from their herds. SLE buys these items from herding families and sells them abroad. Herders must agree to protect the snow leopards and to encourage neighbors to do the same.

The arrangement increases herders’ incomes by 10 to 15 percent and “elevates” the status of the women. If no one in the community kills the protected animals over the course of a year, the program members are rewarded with a 20 percent bonus in addition to the money they’ve already made. An independent review in 2006 found no snow leopard killings in areas where SLE operates. Today the organization continues to add more communities.

Projects like the Homestays program in India and SLE’s business in Mongolia are doing well, though they cover only a small part of the snow leopard’s homeland, they make the leopards more valuable to more people each year. If these programs continue to do well, the snow leopard may just have a figting chance.

Question 1: Which of these is NOT true about the Himalayan Homestays program?

A. The organization helps herders to build fences.

B. Herders provide accommodation to guests.

C. Some herders work as nature guides.

D. Visitors pay $10 a week to stay at a herder’s house.

Đáp án: D

Thông tin: For a clean room and bed, meals with the family, and an introduction to their culture, visitors pay about ten U.S. dollars a night.

Dịch nghĩa: Đối với một căn phòng và giường sạch sẽ, các bữa ăn với gia đình và giới thiệu về văn hóa của họ, du khách phải trả khoảng mười đô la Mỹ mỗi đêm.

Question 2: The purpose of the projects mentioned is

A. to persuade herders to live on eco-tourism not raising animals

B. to elevate the status of the women in the communities

C. to increase the population of snow leopards in wildlife reserves

D. to make local people have a sustainable life to protect snow leopards

Đáp án: D

Thông tin: To address this problem, local religious leaders have called for an end to snow leopard killings, saying that these wild animals have the right to exist peacefully. They’ve also tried to convince people that the leopards are quite rare and thus it is important to protect them.

Dịch nghĩa: Để giải quyết vấn đề này, các nhà lãnh đạo tôn giáo địa phương đã kêu gọi chấm dứt giết hại báo tuyết, nói rằng những động vật hoang dã này có quyền tồn tại một cách hòa bình. Họ cũng đã cố gắng thuyết phục mọi người rằng báo đốm khá hiếm và do đó điều quan trọng là phải bảo vệ chúng.

Question 3: The phrase “this trend” in paragraph 4 refers to

A. the fall in the snow leopard population

B. the pressures caused by the black market

C. increasing conflict with the herders

D. the opinions of conservationists

Đáp án: A

Thông tin: As a result of these pressures, the current snow leopard population is estimated at only 4,000 to 7,000, and some fear that the actual number may already have dropped below 3,500. The only way to reverse this trend and bring these cats back from near extinction…

Dịch nghĩa: Như là kết quả của sức ép này, dân số báo tuyết hiện tại ước tính chỉ có 4.000 đến 7.000, và một số người lo ngại rằng con số thực tế có thể đã giảm xuống dưới 3.500. Cách duy nhất để đảo ngược xu hướng này và mang những con mèo này trở lại từ gần như tuyệt chủng…

Question 4: What is the main idea of the third paragraph?

A. Local herders are uncooperative in attempts to save snow leopards.

B. The snow leopard’s endangerment is due to in part to the black market.

C. Snow leopards are killed for their fur and body parts.

D. It is difficult to enforce the laws made to protect the snow leopard.

Đáp án: D

Thông tin: Snow leopards have been officially protected since 1975, but enforcing this law has proven difficult.

Dịch nghĩa: Báo tuyết đã được bảo vệ chính thức từ năm 1975, nhưng việc thi hành luật này đã được chứng minh là khó khăn.

Question 5: The word “address” in in paragraph 6 can be replaced by

A. solve          B. locate

C. discuss          D. Change

Đáp án: A

Từ mới: "address" = solve: giải quyết

Question 6: Why is the Mongolian women's status in the community “elevated”?

A. They can encourage their neighbours.

B. They are saving money for the snow leopards.

C. They are earning money for the community.

D. They are living higher up in the mountain.

Đáp án: C

Thông tin: Women in Mongolian herder communities make a variety of products—yarn for making clothes, decorative floor rugs, and toys—using the wool from their herds. SLE buys these items from herding families and sells them abroad. […] The arrangement increases herders’ incomes by 10 to 15 percent and “elevates” the status of the women.

Dịch nghĩa: Phụ nữ ở các cộng đồng chăn gia súc Mông Cổ tạo ra nhiều sản phẩm sợi khác nhau để làm quần áo, thảm sàn trang trí và đồ chơi bằng cách sử dụng len từ đàn gia súc của họ. SLE mua các mặt hàng này từ các gia đình chăn gia súc và bán chúng ra nước ngoài. [Vùi] Sự sắp xếp này làm tăng thu nhập của người chăn nuôi từ 10 đến 15 phần trăm và nâng cao tình trạng của phụ nữ.

Question 7: According to conservationists, what is the best way to save the snow leopard?

A. Create a nature park where they can be free

B. Move herders away from where the snow leopard lives

C. Pass laws to punish people who kill snow leopards for their fur

D. Make people recognize the value of living snow leopards.

Đáp án: D

Thông tin: The only way to reverse this trend and bring these cats back from near extinction, say conservationists, is to make them more valuable alive than dead.

Dịch nghĩa: Cách duy nhất để đảo ngược xu hướng này và đưa những con mèo này trở lại từ gần tuyệt chủng, theo các nhà bảo tồn, là làm cho chúng có giá trị sống hơn là chết.

Question 8: The word “bodies” in paragraph 3 refers to

A. the big cats          B. snow leopards

C. local herders          D. the herders’ animals

Đáp án: D

“bodies” đề cập đến “the herders’ animals”

Thông tin: This is because the big cats kill the herders’ animals, and drag the bodies away to eat high up in the mountains.

Dịch nghĩa: Điều này là do những con mèo lớn giết động vật của những người chăn nuôi gia súc, và kéo các xác chết đi để ăn ở cao trên núi.

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